✎✎✎ Socialist Realism: Continuation Or Cessation?

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Socialist Realism: Continuation Or Cessation?



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Jaak Kangilaski. The Theory of Socialist Realism as a Means of Suppression

The third higher knowledge is usually translated as telepathy, though it means simply the ability to know the underlying mental state of others, not the reading of their minds and thoughts. The next three types of higher knowledge are especially important because they were experienced by the Buddha the night of his enlightenment, and because they are the Buddhist counterparts to the triple knowledge of the Vedas. The fourth higher knowledge is retrocognition or knowledge of past lives, which entails a direct experience of the process of rebirth. The fifth is the divine eye or clairvoyance; that is, direct experience of the process of karma, or as the texts put it, the passing away and reappearing of beings in accordance with their past actions.

The sixth is knowledge of the destruction of taints, which implies experiential knowledge of the four noble truths and the process of liberation. According to the empiricist interpretation, Buddhist faith is always subsequent to critically verifying the available empirical evidence. All doctrines taught by the Buddha are empirically verifiable if one takes the time and effort to attain higher or direct knowledge, interpreted as extraordinary sense experience. For instance, the triple knowledge of enlightenment implies a direct experience of the processes of karma, rebirth, and the four noble truths.

Critiques of the empiricist interpretation point out that, at least at the beginning of the path, Buddhist faith is not always based on empirical evidence, and that the purpose of extraordinary knowledge is not to verify the doctrines of karma, rebirth, and the four noble truths Hoffman , The opposition between rationalism and empiricism and the sharp distinction between senses and reason is foreign to Buddhism. In this sense, the Buddha is not an empiricist. However, the Buddha substantially modifies the cosmology of his time. Against the Brahmanic tendency to understand karma as ritual action, and the Jain claim that all activities including involuntary actions constitute karma, the Buddha defines karma in terms of volition, or free will, which is expressed through thoughts, words, and behavior.

That is, for the Buddha, only voluntary actions produce karma. There are many hells and heavens and life there is transitory, just as in other destinations. In some traditions there is another destination, the realm of asuras or demigods, who are jealous of the gods and who are always in conflict with them. The three planes of existence are sensorial, fine-material, and immaterial M.

Most destinations belong to the sensorial realm. Only a minority of heavens belong to the fine-material and immaterial realms. Rebirth in a particular realm depends on past actions: good actions lead to good destinations and bad actions to bad rebirths. Rebirth as a human or in heaven is considered a good destination; rebirth in the realm of ghosts, hell, and the animal realm are bad. Human rebirth is extremely difficult to attain S. In this last sense human rebirth is said to be even better than rebirth as a god. Rebirth also depends on the prevalent mental states of a person during life, and especially at the moment of death.

That is, there is a correlation between mental states and realms of rebirth, between cosmology and psychology. For instance, a mind where hatred and anger prevails is likely to be reborn in hell; deluded and uncultivated minds are headed toward the animal kingdom; someone obsessed with sex and food will probably become bound to earth as a ghost; loving and caring persons will be reborn in heaven; someone who frequently dwells in meditative absorptions will be reborn in the fine-material and immaterial realms. Human rebirth might be the consequence of any of the aforementioned mental states. Perhaps the most important modification the Buddha introduces into the traditional cosmology of his time was a new view of Gods gods within Buddhism.

For the Buddha, the universe has not been created by an all-knowing, all-powerful god that is the lord of the universe and father of all beings M. Rather, the universe evolves following certain cyclic patterns of contraction and expansion D. Similarly, the cosmic order, or Dharma, does not depend on the will of gods, and there are many good deeds far more effective than ritual sacrifices offered to the gods D. Gods for the Buddha are unenlightened beings subject to birth and death that require further learning and spiritual practice in order to attain liberation; they are more powerful and spiritually more developed than humans and other living beings, but Buddhas excel them in all regards: spiritual development, wisdom, and power.

The word sacca means both truth and reality. The word ariya refers primarily to the ideal type of person the Buddhist path is supposed to generate, a noble person in the ethical and spiritual sense. The four noble truths are primarily four realities whose contemplation leads to sainthood or the state of the noble ones ariya. Each noble truth requires a particular practice from the disciple; in this sense the four noble truths can be understood as four types of practice.

The first noble truth, or the reality of suffering, assigns to the disciple the practice of cultivating understanding. Such understanding takes place gradually through reflection, analytical meditation, and eventually direct experience. A common misconception about the first noble truth is to think that it presupposes a pessimistic outlook on life. The second noble truth, or reality of the origin of suffering, calls for the practice of renunciation to all mental states that generate suffering for oneself and others.

This translation has misled many to think that the ultimate goal of Buddhists is the cessation of all desires. Unlike the loaded, vast, and ambivalent term desire, the term craving refers more specifically to a particular type of desire, and cannot be misinterpreted as conveying any want and aspiration whatsoever. There is no contradiction in willing the cessation of craving. More specifically, ignorance refers to not knowing things as they are, the Dharma, and the four noble truths.

The most popular of all the terms that express the cessation of suffering and rebirth is nirvana, which literally means blowing out or extinguishing. Metaphorically, the extinction of nirvana designates a mental event, namely, the extinguishing of the fires of craving, aversion, and delusion S. The fourth noble truth, or reality of the path leading to the cessation of suffering, imposes on us the practice of developing the eightfold ennobling path. This path can be understood either as eight mental factors that are cultivated by ennobled disciples at the moment of liberation, or as different parts of the entire Buddhist path whose practice ennoble the disciple gradually.

The eight parts of the Buddhist path are usually divided into three kinds of training: training in wisdom right view and right intention , ethical training right speech, right bodily conduct, and right livelihood , and training in concentration right effort, right mindfulness and right concentration. When asked about his teachings, the Buddha answers that he only teaches suffering and its cessation M.

The first noble truth describes what the Buddha means by suffering: birth, aging, illness, death, union with what is displeasing, separation from what is pleasing, not getting what one wants, the five aggregates of grasping S. The original Pali term for suffering is dukkha, a word that ordinarily means physical and mental pain, but that in the first noble truth designates diverse kinds of frustration, and the existential angst generated by the impermanence of life and the unavoidability of old age, disease, and death. That is, the Buddha describes human existence in terms of five groups of constituents. While the first aggregate refers to material components, the other four designate a variety of mental functions. The aggregate material form is explained as the four great elements and the shape or figure of our physical body.

The four great elements are earth, water, fire, and air. The earth element is further defined as whatever is solid in our body, and water as whatever is liquid. The air element denotes the breathing process and movements of gas throughout the body M. The aggregate sensations denote pleasant, unpleasant and neutral feelings experienced after there is contact between the six sense organs eye, ear, nose, tongue, body, and mind and their six objects forms, sounds, odors, tastes, tangible objects, and mental phenomena.

The aggregate perceptions express the mental function by which someone is able to identify objects. There are six types of perceptions corresponding to the six objects of the senses. These dispositions are the result of past cognitive and affective conditioning, that is, past karma or past voluntary actions. The aggregate consciousness connotes the ability to know and to be aware of the six objects of the senses S. Since none of the five aggregates fulfill any of these conditions, it is wrong to see them as belonging to us or as our self.

The same reasoning is applied to the other aggregates. The first argument is also applied to the six sensual organs, the six objects, the six types of consciousness, perceptions, sensations, and formations that arise dependent on the contact between the senses and their objects M. What is impermanent is suffering. What is suffering is non-self. If it were self, it would not lead to affliction.

Let my material form not be thus. The same reasoning is applied to the other four aggregates. The third argument deduces non-self from that fact that physical and mental phenomena depend on certain causes to exist. For instance, in M. The third argument also appears combined with the first one without questions and answers. For instance, in A. What is impermanent, that is suffering. If something can be inferred from these three arguments, it is that the target of the doctrine of non-self is not all concepts of self but specifically views of the self as permanent and not dependently arisen.

Views of personal identity relate the five aggregates to a permanent and independent self in four ways: as being identical, as being possession of the self, as being in the self, or as the self being in them M. All these views of personal identity are said to be the product of spiritual ignorance, that is, of not seeing with right wisdom the true nature of the five aggregates, their origin, their cessation, and the way leading to their cessation. Similarly, since the Buddha explicitly criticizes views that reject karma and moral responsibility M. Even though no current scholar of Buddhism would endorse such an interpretation of non-self, it is still popular in some missionary circles and apologetic literature.

A more sympathetic interpretation of non-self distinguishes between two main levels of discourse Collins The first level of discourse does not question the concept of self and freely uses personal terms and expressions in accordance with ordinary language and social conventions. The second level of discourse is philosophically more sophisticated and rejects views of self and personal identity as permanent and not dependently arisen. Behind the second level of discourse there is a technical understanding of the self and personal identity as the five aggregates, that is, as a combination of psychophysical processes, all of them impermanent and dependently originated.

This concept of the self as permanent and not dependently arisen is problematic because it is based on a misperception of the aggregates. This combination of conceit and ignorance fosters different types of cravings, especially craving for immortal existence, and subsequently, speculations about the past, present, and future nature of the self and personal identity. For instance, in D. Accordingly, the purpose of the doctrine of non-self is simply to deny that the five aggregates are the true self.

For these scholars, the Buddha does talk about the true self when he speaks about the consciousness of liberated beings M. However, the majority of Buddhist scholars agree with the traditional Buddhist self-understanding: they think that the doctrine of non-self is incompatible with any doctrine about a permanent and independent self, not just with views that mistakenly identify an alleged true self with the five aggregates. The main reason for this interpretation relates to the doctrine of dependent arising.

Preaching the doctrine of dependent arising amounts to preaching the Dharma M. The Dharma of dependent arising remains valid whether or not there are Buddhas in the world S. The doctrine of dependent arising can be formulated in two ways that usually appear together: as a general principle or as a chain of causal links to explain the arising and ceasing of suffering and the process of rebirth. Unlike the logical principle of conditionality, the principle of dependent arising does not designate a connection between two ideas but rather an ontological relationship between two things or events within a particular timeframe. In other words, the principle of dependent arising conveys both ontological conditionality and the constitutive relativity of things.

This is a later development of Buddhist thought, not a characteristic of early Indian Buddhism. The most comprehensive chain of dependent arising contains twelve causal links: 1 ignorance, 2 formations, 3 consciousness, 4 mentality-materiality, 5 the six senses, 6 contact, 7 sensations, 8 craving 9 grasping, 10 becoming, 11 birth, 12 old age and death. The most common formulation is as follows: with 1 as a condition 2 [comes to be]; with 2 as a condition 3 [comes to be], and so forth. Conversely, with the cessation of 1 comes the cessation of 2; with the cessation of 2 comes the cessation of 3, and so forth. It is important to keep in mind that this chain does not imply a linear understanding of causality where the antecedent link disappears once the subsequent link has come to be.

Similarly, each of the causal links is not to be understood as the one and only cause that produces the next link but rather as the most necessary condition for its arising. For instance, ignorance, the first link, is not the only cause of the process of suffering but rather the cause most necessary for the continuation of such a process. The traditional interpretation divides the twelve link chain of dependent arising into three lives. The first two links ignorance and formations belong to the past life: due to a misperception of the nature of the five aggregates, a person the five aggregates performs voluntary actions: mental, verbal, and bodily actions, with wholesome, unwholesome, and neutral karmic effects.

The next ten factors correspond to the present life: the karmic effects of past voluntary formations are stored in consciousness and transferred to the next life. Consciousness together with the other mental aggregates combines with a new physical body to constitute a new psychophysical organism mentality-materiality. This new stage of the five aggregates develops the six senses and the ability to establish contact with their six objects. Contacts with objects of the senses produce pleasant, unpleasant and neutral sensations. If the sensations are pleasant, the person usually responds with cravings for more pleasant experiences, and if the sensations are unpleasant, with aversion.

By repeating the affective responses of craving and aversion, the person becomes more and more dependent on whatever leads to more pleasant sensations and less unpleasant ones. This creates a variety of emotional dependencies and a tendency to grasp or hold onto what causes pleasure and avoids pain. In this sense, grasping is the psychological fuel that maintains the fires of craving, aversion, and delusion, the fires whose extinction is called nirvana. Moreover, the attitude of the local Chinese authorities shows that they have ignored the vigorous demand of the Soviet government that they refrain from further provocative acts and violations of existing treaties and agreements.

The raid upon the consulate in Harbin was only one link in a chain of such actions. As a result the situation created by the violence with regard to the consulate is taking on an ever more serious character. During the search thirty-nine Soviet citizens, visitors to the consulate, were arrested by the Chinese police; they are still being held in a Chinese prison. It is surprising of course that the number arrested was so small. It is clear that the arrests which were made during the raid had the same character. These mass arrests mean the creation of a situation in which the simple visit by a Soviet citizen to his consulate is regarded as a criminal act punishable by arrest.

It is clear that such a situation is intolerable. Moreover, the illegal raid upon the consulate was used by the Chinese authorities to initiate a new anti-Soviet campaign which is absolutely unique in its cynicism, its aggressiveness, and which is based furthermore on crude and obvious forgeries purporting to be documents seized during the search. The publication of these forgeries is therefore proof that the Chinese authorities, despite the warning they have received, are continuing their policy of provocation and lawlessness.

The police also declared that in the consulate they confiscated compromising documents, literature, arms, and—opium! Although janie 's friends and her close family told her to just stay away from him because they didn 't want to see her go through something else all over again. But janie decides to ignore all of their concerns so, Tea Cake and Janie latter decide to get married. The similarities between all of these relationships, is that they all told janie that they would always treat her how a woman should be treated. Katharine Brush 's short story "Birthday Party" is about the perjury of a third person 's judgment about a birthday party thrown by a wife for her husband.

Is truly a story with an objective to challenge defining how a man-woman relationship should function. This short story reveals how joyless a marriage can be when spouses are too unimaginative to stray from the bourgeois affection. Sensory details reveal how insignificant the celebration quickly rises into a heartbreaking emotional embarrassment. In Their Eyes Were Watching God, Janie merely wants to love someone, but that choice is ripped out of her hands when Nanny makes her marry someone she does not love. This marriage as well as another one does not work out because she never learns to love them. Finally, she meets Tea Cake, and falls madly in love with him even though he is a lot younger than she is. He is someone that she can truly love while still being able to be herself.

They go through their struggles as well and sadly, he dies by the end of the novel. Similarly, in Chrysanthemums the emotion deprivation that Elisa feels stops her from seeing the truth that was progressively revealed to her throughout the story. This is similar to Elisa and her husband because her husband does not show her the affection she needs which causes her to be fooled into thinking that a stranger is attractive and trustworthy. Whenever, Elisa offers to help her husband on the ranch she is laughed at which cause her to feel underappreciated and thwarted. Through characterization, Brush portrays the wife as the one who cares more about their relationship rather than the husband.

Show More. Analysis Of Katherine Brush's Birthday Party Words 2 Pages In unhealthy relationships, many people start to feel agitated, depressed, anxious, and even hopeless. Read More.

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