⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Loss Of Freedom In The Shawshank Redemption
Its brutal prison Loss Of Freedom In The Shawshank Redemption deemed prisoners as almost inhuman. All three expect to be tortured, but no Lack Of Diversity In Film arrives. Peter Lang. Positions Aesthetics Formalism Institutionalism Aesthetic response. This is the Best book I ever read. Unlike Pascal, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche also considered the role of making Loss Of Freedom In The Shawshank Redemption choices, Loss Of Freedom In The Shawshank Redemption regarding fundamental values and Loss Of Freedom In The Shawshank Redemption, and Vascular Birthmarks such choices change the nature and identity of the chooser. This work also features breathtaking landscapes and disturbing, warm surroundings and moments Loss Of Freedom In The Shawshank Redemption relief and pain.
The Shawshank Redemption - Escape Andy Dufrense
Yes, a sack of coconuts. Papillon, a nickname referencing the French word for butterfly, is a wonderful storyteller and the book is filled with his adventures. I can understand why this book was a huge bestseller when it was published in ; it is compulsively readable and the stories are memorable. Like any great storyteller, the author comes across as so clever and heroic that you wonder how much is exaggerated, but you also don't care because you're enjoying it too much. View all 3 comments. Mar 27, Aaron Arnold rated it it was amazing Shelves: read-in , fiction. I think my favorite part, out of a lot of great parts, was Papillon's moment of agonizing choice about a third of the way in, between staying in his beautiful Venezuelan paradise with his two new-found native wives, and returning to seek "vengeance" on what he thinks is the unjust society that shipped him halfway across the world to rot in a jungle charnel house.
He idiotically chooses to leave this blissful native paradise, but even when I was cursing him for being a fool I thought his reflections on the differences between the "civilized" European culture who'd condemned him and the indigenous cultures who'd adopted him were well-written and interesting in the light of the complicated relationship Western countries have had with their colonies.
The French, while not exactly angels, were often more willing than their neighbors the Spanish and the British to go native and peacefully blend into the various cultures who inhabited their colonies. While I think he overdid the Noble Savage trope a little bit, in terms of the story it makes the protagonist the perfect lone wolf badass who's as at home charming the well-to-do wives of the colonial administrators as he is getting laid with the daughters of whatever tribal chieftains he runs into. Another one of my favorite parts was his first experience in solitary at Devil's Island - I've read other books with prison scenes in them, but his description of the soul-crushing loneliness it engenders is one of the best, and was surely the prototype for countless others.
And of course all his various escape attempts are amazing too, but every part of the book can't be your favorite, that's like having dessert for every meal, something only a child would do. This book hit me squarely on that kind of undiluted childish pleasure level. Now to go track down the movie! View 2 comments. I've seen in other review there is some question in the authenticity, and I did think that some of Papillon's adventures were over-the-top, especially making it so far in the sea on coconuts! I do think some of the book is a bit repetitive and a bit long but overall I really enjoyed it. Now I really have to watch the movie I want to see the original and then the remake.
From there, everyone who disagreed with him in some way was evil and the rest of the world always seemed eager to help him escape. Too black and white for my taste. You might very well enjoy this book as a work of fiction, but it was just not for me. Oct 28, Bettie rated it it was amazing Shelves: nonfiction , winter , re-visit , prisoner , dodgy-narrator , film-only , autobiography-memoir , author-in-the-mirror , published , lit-richer-jan Sentenced to life imprisonment in the penal colony of French Guiana, he became obsessed with one goal: "escape.
Since then, it has become a treasured classic -- the gripping, shocking, ultimately uplifting odyssey of an innocent man who would not be defeated. Lordy, how much this reminds me of my youth and how convinced at one point that this was a mirror of the Dreyfus Affair. I saved this book from the discard pile, from one of the school libraries I worked in while living in Indiana.
This story was even better the second time around. I am glad I reread it. Shelves: autobiographical , southamerica , adventure. This book is incredible. If you liked Shawshank, you'll love Papillon. Henri Charrier, called Papillon for the butterfly tattoo on his chest, was convicted in Paris in for a murder he did not convict and was shipped off to French Guiana. It takes years and several failed attempts for Papillion to escape in this nail-biting story of amazin This book is incredible. It takes years and several failed attempts for Papillion to escape in this nail-biting story of amazing courage. The book has it all, sex for a while Papillion has two Indian wives who are sisters , drugs and a little metaphorical rock and roll.
I can't recommend it enough. Charriere wrote his autobiography in , twenty years after he escaped. View all 6 comments. Its my favorite book till date. One word for it - WOW.. Its just amazing and the way the author has described the life of a man in the prisons is amazing. Its wonderful how he tells this man's story spanning so many years. I saw this movie as a kid.. I must be very young then maybe class 5 or younger.. Papillon means butterfly and it symbolises the protagonists' desire to get free from the clutches of jail. The vivi Its my favorite book till date.
The vivid description is just too good to miss and the book too good to be put down. I also like it because I am great fan of escape stories, prison accounts, prisoner of war and other war stories. And 'adventure' sounded like the right genre for me at that moment in time. I read the translator's introduction last night and I'm looking forward to reading a big chunk of it tonight. To be continued I like to midnight-snack while I do my nightly reading and in a number of places over the last hundred pages I found myself rage-eating my chips - just shovelling them in, too angry with the injustice of Henri's situation to enjoy them. Usually I eat them slowly, one or two per page, savouring them so that I don't accidentally eat a whole bag in one night, something which I could easily have done while reading this book last night.
He talks about a man who hands him a cup of coffee and then exclaims "Oh, where's my finger gone? Henri finds it stuck to the outside of his cup and hands it back to him. According to Wikipedia this sequence is impossible, leprosy, despite all the old wives' tales, does not lead to body parts falling off here, there and everywhere. This next passage is taken straight from Wikipedia's page on leprosy "Initially, infections are without symptoms and typically remain this way for 5 to as long as 20 years.
Symptoms that develop include granulomas loosely described as 'a small nodule' of the nerves, respiratory tract, skin, and eyes. This may result in a lack of ability to feel pain and thus loss of parts of extremities due to repeated injuries. Weakness and poor eyesight may also be present. To reiterate, the loss of body parts happens because of repeated injuries to these body parts, which have become numbed due to granulomas of the nerves.
There is no "Oh, my finger just fell off. If untreated, leprosy can progress and cause permanent damage to the skin, nerves, limbs, and eyes. Contrary to folklore, leprosy does not cause body parts to fall off, although they can become numb or diseased as a result of secondary infections; these occur as a result of the body's defences being compromised by the primary disease. Secondary infections, in turn, can result in tissue loss causing fingers and toes to become shortened and deformed, as cartilage is absorbed into the body. That his main motive for writing this tale of injustice wasn't to make a pile of cash, but to let the world know of what he went through.
You had everything you needed, not one but two loving wives both pregnant with your child not a comment on the fact that one of the wives was not much more than 12, or that the two girls were sisters, just a comment on what he had and what he left behind ; you had a community who accepted and revered you. You had an idyllic island paradise life, what more could you want?
Deciding not to go back for revenge doesn't make you weak, it just means you've found something more important, something worth living for, which you didn't have when you first visualised getting your revenge on all the people who were involved in your imprisonment. Now look what's happened, you've been recaptured and as you pointed out that mistake will cost you seven years of your life.
Imagine how your life could have gone if you had just stayed with Lali and Zoraima. There are so many words per page, with so few paragraphs that it's really slowing down my normal reading speed. Normally, when I'm enjoying a book as much as I'm enjoying this one I look down and am amazed to have read 50 pages in half an hour, with this book I look down and find I've only read 10 pages. Like I said, I'm enjoying the story, but I don't want to be reading it for the rest of my life, I do have other books that I want to get to that I may well enjoy even more than this plus library due dates are looming. First it turns out that GR has been fudging the page count, it's not as I was originally led to believe it's followed by numerous pages of 'extras' including an 'exclusive essay by Howard Marks'.
I think I'm pleased that I've only got pages to go instead of as I'm feeling the pressure from my other books' library due dates and this really is taking a long while to read. Forty-two days after his arrival he made his first break, travelling a thousand gruelling miles in an open boat. Recaptured, his spirit remained untamed - in thirteen years he made nine amazingly daring escapes , including one from the notorious Devil's Island.
An immediate sensation upon its publication, Papillon is one of the greatest adventure stories ever told, a true tale of courage, resilience and an unbreakable will. Nine amazingly daring escapes What the blurb really means is that he attempts to escape nine times, he only succeeds twice, the first attempt when he managed to stay out for 11 months and the final, which I'm currently in the middle of. Learning that a book like this is pretty much just a well-imagined adventure story in the vein of Robinson Crusoe or Treasure Island takes a bit of the shine off story.
It's no longer as fantastically amazing because it's not real. I went into the reading of this book believing that it was a true story and I am certainly disappointed to come to the conclusion that there's very little truth to be found anywhere in the book. It's moving to the historical fiction shelf. Aug 27, Robert rated it it was ok. Papillon was an enjoyable enough summer read; it was just a little hard to suspend my disbelief at times for a supposedly nonfiction endeavor.
I was unsurprised to see in my post-reading research that large portions the story were disputed and that several of Charriere's fellow inmates have claimed over the years that he incorporated the experiences of other would-be escapees and presented them as his own story. I guess this book was a precursor of sorts to A Million Little Pieces in that both a Papillon was an enjoyable enough summer read; it was just a little hard to suspend my disbelief at times for a supposedly nonfiction endeavor. I guess this book was a precursor of sorts to A Million Little Pieces in that both are perfectly good stories that would go down a lot smoother were they not presented as fact.
I would like to re-read this book soon knowing what I know now, and just accept the story as a communal history of the penal colony prisoners, with Papi as the proxy for several inmates' experiences. I had read this many years ago, and of course I've seen the movie more than once. I mean the classic one with Steve McQueen sigh as Papillon. So I knew the story but while I was living in Mexico I found the sequel at a used book table at one of the regular book fairs in the main plaza in town. I never knew there was a sequel so I got it but promised myself to read this first. It had been a very long time since I read Papillon and some of it I didn't remember at all.
But I enjoyed the book and r I had read this many years ago, and of course I've seen the movie more than once. But I enjoyed the book and rooted for Papi every time he made an escape attempt. However, I did get a little tired this time of the way he presented himself as knowing everything about everything, being smarter and tougher then anyone else in any prison, but at the same time being an honorable man.
Maybe he was really was all of that, but by the end I was rolling my eyes a bit, and I just wanted him to get to that last big escape attempt and be done with it. This is why I changed my original four stars to three. I think I was influenced to four stars by the image of Steve McQueen sigh in my head the whole time I was reading. Oh, Papillon was called that because of a butterfly tattoo that he said he had at the base of his neck. But he also had plenty of other tattoos: "On the right side of my chest I had a guard from Calvi; on the left, the head of a woman; just above the waist a tiger's head; on my spine, a crucified sailor, and across the kidneys, a tiger hunt with hunters, palm trees, elephants and tigers. A red cross on a white shield.
In reading a bit more about the author, I saw that the educated opinion these days is that most of the book was fiction, a compilation of experiences that Papillon heard from other prisoners, not events he had gone through himself. I will let those educated people worry about that. The story itself is good, and sometimes that is all that matters. View 1 comment. Nov 26, Trevor Wiltzen rated it it was amazing. Papillon: this is a perfect novel to read during a Pandemic.
His book is marketed as an autobiography, although journalists of the era found many false or fanciful parts. The man writes with a passion and a sense of storytelling beyond compare. He wrote his history on a whim, expecting to hand it off to an editor to be fixed or forgotten Papillon: this is a perfect novel to read during a Pandemic. He wrote his history on a whim, expecting to hand it off to an editor to be fixed or forgotten — that no one would read it or care. He was wrong. He became a sensation. The editor barely changed a word, and the world recognized in this swashbuckling renegade an epitome of what a man can become — free in mind and spirit, regardless of the effort to destroy him. Henri had an almost animal-like intensity.
A brute of a man hardened by the prison system, he craved refinement and had a natural charm. While he professed indifference to what others thought of him, I imagine he was a proud and sensitive soul, hiding a damaged sense of self-worth and pride. Maybe that is why he had embellished his tale — but what a tale it was. Driven by rage against the prosecutor and judge who convicted him, he vowed to escape prison to return to France to exact his revenge. But this was s France. Its brutal prison system deemed prisoners as almost inhuman. Beatings and deprivations were common. He was sentenced to serve on a penal island in South America, surrounded by tides and sharks, fronted by a mainland thick with wet jungle filled with quicksand, where escape meant either a quick death or a slow one.
When Henri spied the land to become his home for over the next decade, his legs quaked. Yet, wanting revenge, he steeled himself to establish his dominance, or at least, to prevent others from dominating him. When he entered the billeted prison, a longhouse filled by cons, he was greeted by cheers from a few of his criminal friends who had entered the system before him. Henri was no saint. He was a self-declared thief and a criminal. And while other men succumbed to their vices and immersed themselves in the excesses of this kind of life, he would not. Innocent of the charges, he vowed to escape and punish the men who all but hanged him.
And so he did. Attempt after attempt, all to get back at those who sent him here. Each time, he was caught and forced to return to prison and then eventually to solitary confinement. The rules were this: no talking at any time, day or night, but for two minutes every few weeks, a doctor would carelessly check your declining health, and one could speak but a word or two. Thin gruel the only food passed through slots in a door to minimize your human contact. Living in open roof cages with iron bars, with upper deck gangways for guards to watch the prisoners below like animals in a cage, the trapped men could only look up, silently, and feel cowed. The silence was overwhelming, no words, no sounds, no shouts, no laughter.
Henri was forced to spend every moment of the day in a cell three paces wide. If he broke the silence, he was punished by a beating, or even worse, more time in solitary. No one survived these conditions beyond five years. Some would perish; most would go mad. So he paced his cage back and forth for hours every day until absolutely spent, he would lay down on his cot and close his eyes. But he would not sleep. He would use his exhaustion to relive his youth, his time in Paris, his time outside these walls, allowing him to laugh, love, fight, and feel again. He would recall or imagine real or fanciful moments: when he was adopted by a South American Indian tribe, living in the traditional ways and pearl diving in the sea, or spending time with his love, Nenette, a hooker in Paris, or holding the till of an open sailing boat drifting to Trinidad on one of his most daring escapes.
Moments like these became more vibrant than dreams. More real than life itself, he could escape his prison, his life, his hate and soar free. Recalling this book from memory while resting in my chair at home, my tiredness of course does not compare, my freedom unrestricted except by choice of either going outside into the cold or into a warm, soft bed. Yet, with this pandemic, we are forced to spend at least part of our lives in semi-isolation, and I think we can all relate a little more to what this man experienced. His novel made me realize that a storyteller can sweep you off your feet and drop you into a fanciful world beyond compare.
It does not matter whether the storyteller is embellishing his tale or not. It is the story that is the key. And Henri told a magnificent tale. Check it out. View all 7 comments. It's been a while since I cried "uncle" but today I had to do it again. Waded through Wicked, clumped through It's been a while since I cried "uncle" but today I had to do it again. OK, I apologize for that one. It was over 10 years ago that I last gave up on a book, and I think it was Evan S Connell's Son of the Morning Star which was actually very well researched but just so disorganized that I couldn't get through it. And now I have to dump Papillon by Henri Charriere, a grand exaggeration according to online accounts including wikipedia of a wildly egotistical, "wrongly convicted" French guy who escapes prison several times using money that he has hidden from guards think: Christopher Walken in Pulp Fiction, although I realize that Papillon came first , in order to one day write a meandering memoir full of his bafflingly bloated tall tales which would be made into a movie starring Steve McQueen and Dustin Hoffman.
I understand that, as the story proceeds, Papillon finds ways to celebrate life as he endures various miseries. I leave you with these words of wisdom: "It's as easy as that to drop the chains you've been dragging So fascinating, haunting; you feel the pain and ecstasy. No escape till the last page, you sail along all 'Cavale' with them. Even though the author is silent all throughout the novel, on the plot of his conviction for murder in France except by saying that he was innocent, we really feel that he was really innocent. This, the author succeeds to prove through various instances in the novel.
We also feel many occasions unbelievable where we see he is recognized instantly, and many show sympathy to So fascinating, haunting; you feel the pain and ecstasy. Happy reading. Jul 24, Wayne Barrett rated it it was ok Shelves: autobiography , non-fiction , prison , , adventure , biography. I was disappointed with this one. I added it based on memory of the old 70's classic starring Steve McQueen and Dustin Hoffman and maybe for that reason my expectations were too high.
There were a couple of intense parts to the story, so I will at least give this a 2, but overall, the story ran on, seeming to repeat itself with similar encounters. The translation may be to blame, but I thought the writing was amateurish. Henri Charriere was writing about his own encounter in escaping the French I was disappointed with this one. Henri Charriere was writing about his own encounter in escaping the French prisons, several times, but his telling felt like someone exaggerating the facts and bragging about their exploits.
What I got out of this; yes, the conditions in this prison system were horrible, inhuman, but that doesn't excuse the fact that Papillon was a criminal and a murderer. Just because he managed multiple escapes, many by committing murder, does not make him a figure to be admired. May 15, Hesamul Haque rated it it was amazing. Never give up the fight, and that even when there seems no way out the way of the warrior, win or lose, is the correct way. Books are such a wonderful thing that it teaches you all and me being very curious, we have become best friends now.
This was one of the best autobiographies I have ever read. The determination of papillon is beyond explanation. The tattoo on his chest of a papillon really meant something, he was never meant to be caged. An awesome journey, many things to learn from and wil Never give up the fight, and that even when there seems no way out the way of the warrior, win or lose, is the correct way. An awesome journey, many things to learn from and will always remember him when I feel down as how he never gave up. A great read! Aug 07, Jared N P rated it liked it.
It kinda drags too much for me. It has its interesting moments though. But in the end, I didn't care much. What is the price of your freedom? Papillon's price for freedom is equal to his life. Reading a story like this makes me realize how lucky I am to have this kind of life because probably if I was in Henri's shoes I would have been dead for a very long time. No matter what happens to him he has one thing in his mind. To Escape. Because he was accused of a crime that he didn't commit makes his will to escape stronger. He claims that Papillon is a true story. Some events might be real but there is n What is the price of your freedom?
Some events might be real but there is no way it is completely true. It made me realize that Papillon is extremely lucky because during his escapes he mostly meets with good people that help him without waiting anything in return. While reading those parts, I was thinking that; in any moment someone will spy on him and this probably shows my faith in humanity. I have no trust in them anymore and this is one of the reasons why I don't think the story is completely true. Regarding France, we know what France is just by looking at their national football team. They were not only cruel to the people of world but also their very own people.
In this point of view it is a cursed country with very large black spots in their history which will never come off. How one "should" act is often determined by an image one has, of how one in such a role bank manager, lion tamer, prostitute, etc acts. In Being and Nothingness , Sartre uses the example of a waiter in "bad faith". He merely takes part in the "act" of being a typical waiter, albeit very convincingly. The main point is the attitude one takes to one's own freedom and responsibility and the extent to which one acts in accordance with this freedom. The Other written with a capital "O" is a concept more properly belonging to phenomenology and its account of intersubjectivity.
However, it has seen widespread use in existentialist writings, and the conclusions drawn differ slightly from the phenomenological accounts. The Other is the experience of another free subject who inhabits the same world as a person does. In its most basic form, it is this experience of the Other that constitutes intersubjectivity and objectivity. To clarify, when one experiences someone else, and this Other person experiences the world the same world that a person experiences —only from "over there"—the world is constituted as objective in that it is something that is "there" as identical for both of the subjects; a person experiences the other person as experiencing the same things. This experience of the Other's look is what is termed the Look sometimes the Gaze.
While this experience, in its basic phenomenological sense, constitutes the world as objective and oneself as objectively existing subjectivity one experiences oneself as seen in the Other's Look in precisely the same way that one experiences the Other as seen by him, as subjectivity , in existentialism, it also acts as a kind of limitation of freedom. This is because the Look tends to objectify what it sees. When one experiences oneself in the Look, one does not experience oneself as nothing no thing , but as something.
In Sartre's example of a man peeping at someone through a keyhole, the man is entirely caught up in the situation he is in. He is in a pre-reflexive state where his entire consciousness is directed at what goes on in the room. Suddenly, he hears a creaking floorboard behind him and he becomes aware of himself as seen by the Other. He is then filled with shame for he perceives himself as he would perceive someone else doing what he was doing - as a Peeping Tom. For Sartre, this phenomenological experience of shame establishes proof for the existence of other minds and defeats the problem of solipsism. For the conscious state of shame to be experienced, one has to become aware of oneself as an object of another look, proving a priori, that other minds exist.
Another characteristic feature of the Look is that no Other really needs to have been there: It is possible that the creaking floorboard was simply the movement of an old house; the Look is not some kind of mystical telepathic experience of the actual way the Other sees one there may have been someone there, but he could have not noticed that person.
It is only one's perception of the way another might perceive him. It is generally held to be a negative feeling arising from the experience of human freedom and responsibility. The archetypal example is the experience one has when standing on a cliff where one not only fears falling off it, but also dreads the possibility of throwing oneself off. In this experience that "nothing is holding me back", one senses the lack of anything that predetermines one to either throw oneself off or to stand still, and one experiences one's own freedom. It can also be seen in relation to the previous point how angst is before nothing, and this is what sets it apart from fear that has an object.
While one can take measures to remove an object of fear, for angst no such "constructive" measures are possible. The use of the word "nothing" in this context relates to the inherent insecurity about the consequences of one's actions and to the fact that, in experiencing freedom as angst, one also realizes that one is fully responsible for these consequences. There is nothing in people genetically, for instance that acts in their stead—that they can blame if something goes wrong.
Therefore, not every choice is perceived as having dreadful possible consequences and, it can be claimed, human lives would be unbearable if every choice facilitated dread. However, this does not change the fact that freedom remains a condition of every action. Despair is generally defined as a loss of hope. If a person is invested in being a particular thing, such as a bus driver or an upstanding citizen, and then finds their being-thing compromised, they would normally be found in a state of despair—a hopeless state.
For example, a singer who loses the ability to sing may despair if they have nothing else to fall back on—nothing to rely on for their identity. They find themselves unable to be what defined their being. What sets the existentialist notion of despair apart from the conventional definition is that existentialist despair is a state one is in even when they are not overtly in despair.
So long as a person's identity depends on qualities that can crumble, they are in perpetual despair—and as there is, in Sartrean terms, no human essence found in conventional reality on which to constitute the individual's sense of identity, despair is a universal human condition. When the God-forsaken worldliness of earthly life shuts itself in complacency, the confined air develops poison, the moment gets stuck and stands still, the prospect is lost, a need is felt for a refreshing, enlivening breeze to cleanse the air and dispel the poisonous vapors lest we suffocate in worldliness. Lovingly to hope all things is the opposite of despairingly to hope nothing at all. Love hopes all things—yet is never put to shame. To relate oneself expectantly to the possibility of the good is to hope.
To relate oneself expectantly to the possibility of evil is to fear. By the decision to choose hope one decides infinitely more than it seems, because it is an eternal decision. Existentialists oppose defining human beings as primarily rational, and, therefore, oppose both positivism and rationalism. Existentialism asserts that people make decisions based on subjective meaning rather than pure rationality. The rejection of reason as the source of meaning is a common theme of existentialist thought, as is the focus on the anxiety and dread that we feel in the face of our own radical free will and our awareness of death.
Kierkegaard advocated rationality as a means to interact with the objective world e. Like Kierkegaard, Sartre saw problems with rationality, calling it a form of "bad faith", an attempt by the self to impose structure on a world of phenomena — "the Other" — that is fundamentally irrational and random. According to Sartre, rationality and other forms of bad faith hinder people from finding meaning in freedom. To try to suppress feelings of anxiety and dread, people confine themselves within everyday experience, Sartre asserted, thereby relinquishing their freedom and acquiescing to being possessed in one form or another by "the Look" of "the Other" i.
An existentialist reading of the Bible would demand that the reader recognize that they are an existing subject studying the words more as a recollection of events. Such a reader is not obligated to follow the commandments as if an external agent is forcing these commandments upon them, but as though they are inside them and guiding them from inside. This is the task Kierkegaard takes up when he asks: "Who has the more difficult task: the teacher who lectures on earnest things a meteor's distance from everyday life—or the learner who should put it to use?
Although nihilism and existentialism are distinct philosophies, they are often confused with one another since both are rooted in the human experience of anguish and confusion that stems from the apparent meaninglessness of a world in which humans are compelled to find or create meaning. Existentialist philosophers often stress the importance of angst as signifying the absolute lack of any objective ground for action, a move that is often reduced to moral or existential nihilism. A pervasive theme in existentialist philosophy, however, is to persist through encounters with the absurd, as seen in Camus's The Myth of Sisyphus "One must imagine Sisyphus happy"  and it is only very rarely that existentialist philosophers dismiss morality or one's self-created meaning: Kierkegaard regained a sort of morality in the religious although he wouldn't agree that it was ethical; the religious suspends the ethical , and Sartre's final words in Being and Nothingness are: "All these questions, which refer us to a pure and not an accessory or impure reflection, can find their reply only on the ethical plane.
We shall devote to them a future work. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were two of the first philosophers considered fundamental to the existentialist movement, though neither used the term "existentialism" and it is unclear whether they would have supported the existentialism of the 20th century. They focused on subjective human experience rather than the objective truths of mathematics and science, which they believed were too detached or observational to truly get at the human experience. Like Pascal , they were interested in people's quiet struggle with the apparent meaninglessness of life and the use of diversion to escape from boredom.
Unlike Pascal, Kierkegaard and Nietzsche also considered the role of making free choices, particularly regarding fundamental values and beliefs, and how such choices change the nature and identity of the chooser. Nietzsche's idealized individual invents his own values and creates the very terms they excel under. By contrast, Kierkegaard, opposed to the level of abstraction in Hegel, and not nearly as hostile actually welcoming to Christianity as Nietzsche, argues through a pseudonym that the objective certainty of religious truths specifically Christian is not only impossible, but even founded on logical paradoxes.
Yet he continues to imply that a leap of faith is a possible means for an individual to reach a higher stage of existence that transcends and contains both an aesthetic and ethical value of life. Kierkegaard and Nietzsche were also precursors to other intellectual movements, including postmodernism , and various strands of psychotherapy. However, Kierkegaard believed that individuals should live in accordance with their thinking. The first important literary author also important to existentialism was the Russian, Dostoevsky.
Sartre, in his book on existentialism Existentialism is a Humanism , quoted Dostoyevsky's The Brothers Karamazov as an example of existential crisis. Other Dostoyevsky novels covered issues raised in existentialist philosophy while presenting story lines divergent from secular existentialism: for example, in Crime and Punishment , the protagonist Raskolnikov experiences an existential crisis and then moves toward a Christian Orthodox worldview similar to that advocated by Dostoyevsky himself. In the first decades of the 20th century, a number of philosophers and writers explored existentialist ideas.
The Spanish philosopher Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo , in his book The Tragic Sense of Life in Men and Nations , emphasized the life of "flesh and bone" as opposed to that of abstract rationalism. Unamuno rejected systematic philosophy in favor of the individual's quest for faith. He retained a sense of the tragic, even absurd nature of the quest, symbolized by his enduring interest in the eponymous character from the Miguel de Cervantes novel Don Quixote. A novelist, poet and dramatist as well as philosophy professor at the University of Salamanca, Unamuno wrote a short story about a priest's crisis of faith, Saint Manuel the Good, Martyr , which has been collected in anthologies of existentialist fiction. Another Spanish thinker, Ortega y Gasset , writing in , held that human existence must always be defined as the individual person combined with the concrete circumstances of his life: " Yo soy yo y mi circunstancia " "I am myself and my circumstances".
Sartre likewise believed that human existence is not an abstract matter, but is always situated " en situation ". Although Martin Buber wrote his major philosophical works in German, and studied and taught at the Universities of Berlin and Frankfurt , he stands apart from the mainstream of German philosophy. Born into a Jewish family in Vienna in , he was also a scholar of Jewish culture and involved at various times in Zionism and Hasidism. In , he moved permanently to Jerusalem. His best-known philosophical work was the short book I and Thou , published in Two Russian philosophers, Lev Shestov and Nikolai Berdyaev , became well known as existentialist thinkers during their post-Revolutionary exiles in Paris. Shestov had launched an attack on rationalism and systematization in philosophy as early as in his book of aphorisms All Things Are Possible.
Berdyaev drew a radical distinction between the world of spirit and the everyday world of objects. Human freedom, for Berdyaev, is rooted in the realm of spirit, a realm independent of scientific notions of causation. To the extent the individual human being lives in the objective world, he is estranged from authentic spiritual freedom. Marcel, long before coining the term "existentialism", introduced important existentialist themes to a French audience in his early essay "Existence and Objectivity" and in his Metaphysical Journal Harmony, for Marcel, was to be sought through "secondary reflection", a "dialogical" rather than "dialectical" approach to the world, characterized by "wonder and astonishment" and open to the "presence" of other people and of God rather than merely to "information" about them.
For Marcel, such presence implied more than simply being there as one thing might be in the presence of another thing ; it connoted "extravagant" availability, and the willingness to put oneself at the disposal of the other. Marcel contrasted secondary reflection with abstract, scientific-technical primary reflection , which he associated with the activity of the abstract Cartesian ego. For Marcel, philosophy was a concrete activity undertaken by a sensing, feeling human being incarnate—embodied—in a concrete world.
In Germany, the psychologist and philosopher Karl Jaspers —who later described existentialism as a "phantom" created by the public  —called his own thought, heavily influenced by Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, Existenzphilosophie. For Jaspers, " Existenz -philosophy is the way of thought by means of which man seeks to become himself This way of thought does not cognize objects, but elucidates and makes actual the being of the thinker". Jaspers, a professor at the University of Heidelberg , was acquainted with Heidegger, who held a professorship at Marburg before acceding to Husserl's chair at Freiburg in They held many philosophical discussions, but later became estranged over Heidegger's support of National Socialism Nazism.
They shared an admiration for Kierkegaard,  and in the s, Heidegger lectured extensively on Nietzsche. Nevertheless, the extent to which Heidegger should be considered an existentialist is debatable. In Being and Time he presented a method of rooting philosophical explanations in human existence Dasein to be analysed in terms of existential categories existentiale ; and this has led many commentators to treat him as an important figure in the existentialist movement.
Following the Second World War, existentialism became a well-known and significant philosophical and cultural movement, mainly through the public prominence of two French writers, Jean-Paul Sartre and Albert Camus , who wrote best-selling novels, plays and widely read journalism as well as theoretical texts. Sartre dealt with existentialist themes in his novel Nausea and the short stories in his collection The Wall , and had published his treatise on existentialism, Being and Nothingness , in , but it was in the two years following the liberation of Paris from the German occupying forces that he and his close associates—Camus, Simone de Beauvoir, Maurice Merleau-Ponty, and others—became internationally famous as the leading figures of a movement known as existentialism.
Beauvoir wrote that "not a week passed without the newspapers discussing us";  existentialism became "the first media craze of the postwar era. By the end of , Camus' earlier fiction and plays had been reprinted, his new play Caligula had been performed and his novel The Plague published; the first two novels of Sartre's The Roads to Freedom trilogy had appeared, as had Beauvoir's novel The Blood of Others. Works by Camus and Sartre were already appearing in foreign editions. The Paris-based existentialists had become famous. Sartre had traveled to Germany in to study the phenomenology of Edmund Husserl and Martin Heidegger ,  and he included critical comments on their work in his major treatise Being and Nothingness.
Heidegger read Sartre's work and was initially impressed, commenting: "Here for the first time I encountered an independent thinker who, from the foundations up, has experienced the area out of which I think. Your work shows such an immediate comprehension of my philosophy as I have never before encountered. In the s, Sartre attempted to reconcile existentialism and Marxism in his work Critique of Dialectical Reason. A major theme throughout his writings was freedom and responsibility. Camus was a friend of Sartre, until their falling-out, and wrote several works with existential themes including The Rebel , Summer in Algiers , The Myth of Sisyphus , and The Stranger , the latter being "considered—to what would have been Camus's irritation—the exemplary existentialist novel.
In the titular book, Camus uses the analogy of the Greek myth of Sisyphus to demonstrate the futility of existence. In the myth, Sisyphus is condemned for eternity to roll a rock up a hill, but when he reaches the summit, the rock will roll to the bottom again. Camus believes that this existence is pointless but that Sisyphus ultimately finds meaning and purpose in his task, simply by continually applying himself to it. The first half of the book contains an extended rebuttal of what Camus took to be existentialist philosophy in the works of Kierkegaard, Shestov, Heidegger, and Jaspers.
Simone de Beauvoir , an important existentialist who spent much of her life as Sartre's partner, wrote about feminist and existentialist ethics in her works, including The Second Sex and The Ethics of Ambiguity. Although often overlooked due to her relationship with Sartre,  de Beauvoir integrated existentialism with other forms of thinking such as feminism, unheard of at the time, resulting in alienation from fellow writers such as Camus.
Paul Tillich , an important existentialist theologian following Kierkegaard and Karl Barth , applied existentialist concepts to Christian theology , and helped introduce existential theology to the general public. His seminal work The Courage to Be follows Kierkegaard's analysis of anxiety and life's absurdity, but puts forward the thesis that modern humans must, via God, achieve selfhood in spite of life's absurdity. Rudolf Bultmann used Kierkegaard's and Heidegger's philosophy of existence to demythologize Christianity by interpreting Christian mythical concepts into existentialist concepts.
Maurice Merleau-Ponty , an existential phenomenologist , was for a time a companion of Sartre. Merleau-Ponty's Phenomenology of Perception was recognized as a major statement of French existentialism. However, in later years they were to disagree irreparably, dividing many existentialists such as de Beauvoir,  who sided with Sartre. Colin Wilson , an English writer, published his study The Outsider in , initially to critical acclaim. In this book and others e. Introduction to the New Existentialism , he attempted to reinvigorate what he perceived as a pessimistic philosophy and bring it to a wider audience. He was not, however, academically trained, and his work was attacked by professional philosophers for lack of rigor and critical standards.
Stanley Kubrick 's anti-war film Paths of Glory "illustrates, and even illuminates The film examines existentialist ethics, such as the issue of whether objectivity is possible and the "problem of authenticity ". Neon Genesis Evangelion is a Japanese science fiction animation series created by the anime studio Gainax and was both directed and written by Hideaki Anno. This, in turn, leads him to a better understanding of humanity. Existential perspectives are also found in modern literature to varying degrees, especially since the s. Jean-Paul Sartre's novel Nausea  was "steeped in Existential ideas", and is considered an accessible way of grasping his philosophical stance.
Eliot , Hermann Hesse , Luigi Pirandello ,       Ralph Ellison ,     and Jack Kerouac , composed literature or poetry that contained, to varying degrees, elements of existential or proto-existential thought. The philosophy's influence even reached pulp literature shortly after the turn of the 20th century, as seen in the existential disparity witnessed in Man's lack of control of his fate in the works of H. Dick , Slaughterhouse-Five by Kurt Vonnegut and Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk all distort the line between reality and appearance while simultaneously espousing existential themes. Sartre wrote No Exit in , an existentialist play originally published in French as Huis Clos meaning In Camera or "behind closed doors" , which is the source of the popular quote, "Hell is other people.
The play begins with a Valet leading a man into a room that the audience soon realizes is in hell. Eventually he is joined by two women. After their entry, the Valet leaves and the door is shut and locked. All three expect to be tortured, but no torturer arrives. Instead, they realize they are there to torture each other, which they do effectively by probing each other's sins, desires, and unpleasant memories. Existentialist themes are displayed in the Theatre of the Absurd , notably in Samuel Beckett 's Waiting for Godot , in which two men divert themselves while they wait expectantly for someone or something named Godot who never arrives.
They claim Godot is an acquaintance, but in fact, hardly know him, admitting they would not recognize him if they saw him. Samuel Beckett, once asked who or what Godot is, replied, "If I knew, I would have said so in the play. The play examines questions such as death, the meaning of human existence and the place of God in human existence. Comparisons have also been drawn to Samuel Beckett 's Waiting For Godot , for the presence of two central characters who appear almost as two halves of a single character. Many plot features are similar as well: the characters pass time by playing Questions , impersonating other characters, and interrupting each other or remaining silent for long periods of time.
The two characters are portrayed as two clowns or fools in a world beyond their understanding. They stumble through philosophical arguments while not realizing the implications, and muse on the irrationality and randomness of the world. Jean Anouilh 's Antigone also presents arguments founded on existentialist ideas. Produced under Nazi censorship, the play is purposefully ambiguous with regards to the rejection of authority represented by Antigone and the acceptance of it represented by Creon. The parallels to the French Resistance and the Nazi occupation have been drawn.
Antigone rejects life as desperately meaningless but without affirmatively choosing a noble death. The crux of the play is the lengthy dialogue concerning the nature of power, fate, and choice, during which Antigone says that she is, " Esslin noted that many of these playwrights demonstrated the philosophy better than did the plays by Sartre and Camus. Though most of such playwrights, subsequently labeled "Absurdist" based on Esslin's book , denied affiliations with existentialism and were often staunchly anti-philosophical for example Ionesco often claimed he identified more with 'Pataphysics or with Surrealism than with existentialism , the playwrights are often linked to existentialism based on Esslin's observation.
A major offshoot of existentialism as a philosophy is existentialist psychology and psychoanalysis, which first crystallized in the work of Otto Rank , Freud's closest associate for 20 years. A later figure was Viktor Frankl , who briefly met Freud as a young man. The existentialists would also influence social psychology , antipositivist micro- sociology , symbolic interactionism , and post-structuralism , with the work of thinkers such as Georg Simmel  and Michel Foucault. Foucault was a great reader of Kierkegaard even though he almost never refers this author, who nonetheless had for him an importance as secret as it was decisive. An early contributor to existentialist psychology in the United States was Rollo May , who was strongly influenced by Kierkegaard and Otto Rank.
One of the most prolific writers on techniques and theory of existentialist psychology in the USA is Irvin D. Yalom states that. Aside from their reaction against Freud's mechanistic, deterministic model of the mind and their assumption of a phenomenological approach in therapy, the existentialist analysts have little in common and have never been regarded as a cohesive ideological school. Gebsattel, Roland Kuhn, G. Caruso, F. Buytendijk, G. Bally, and Victor Frankl—were almost entirely unknown to the American psychotherapeutic community until Rollo May's highly influential book Existence —and especially his introductory essay—introduced their work into this country. A more recent contributor to the development of a European version of existentialist psychotherapy is the British-based Emmy van Deurzen.
Anxiety's importance in existentialism makes it a popular topic in psychotherapy. Therapists often offer existentialist philosophy as an explanation for anxiety. The assertion is that anxiety is manifested of an individual's complete freedom to decide, and complete responsibility for the outcome of such decisions. Psychotherapists using an existentialist approach believe that a patient can harness his anxiety and use it constructively. Instead of suppressing anxiety, patients are advised to use it as grounds for change.
By embracing anxiety as inevitable, a person can use it to achieve his full potential in life. Humanistic psychology also had major impetus from existentialist psychology and shares many of the fundamental tenets. Terror management theory , based on the writings of Ernest Becker and Otto Rank , is a developing area of study within the academic study of psychology. It looks at what researchers claim are implicit emotional reactions of people confronted with the knowledge that they will eventually die. Also, Gerd B. Achenbach has refreshed the Socratic tradition with his own blend of philosophical counseling. Walter Kaufmann criticized 'the profoundly unsound methods and the dangerous contempt for reason that have been so prominent in existentialism.
Ayer , assert that existentialists are often confused about the verb "to be" in their analyses of "being". Wilson has stated in his book The Angry Years that existentialism has created many of its own difficulties: "we can see how this question of freedom of the will has been vitiated by post-romantic philosophy, with its inbuilt tendency to laziness and boredom , we can also see how it came about that existentialism found itself in a hole of its own digging, and how the philosophical developments since then have amounted to walking in circles round that hole".
Many critics argue Sartre's philosophy is contradictory. Specifically, they argue that Sartre makes metaphysical arguments despite his claiming that his philosophical views ignore metaphysics. Herbert Marcuse criticized Being and Nothingness for projecting anxiety and meaninglessness onto the nature of existence itself: "Insofar as Existentialism is a philosophical doctrine, it remains an idealistic doctrine: it hypostatizes specific historical conditions of human existence into ontological and metaphysical characteristics. Existentialism thus becomes part of the very ideology which it attacks, and its radicalism is illusory".
Existentialism says existence precedes essence. In this statement he is taking existentia and essentia according to their metaphysical meaning, which, from Plato's time on, has said that essentia precedes existentia. Sartre reverses this statement. But the reversal of a metaphysical statement remains a metaphysical statement. With it, he stays with metaphysics, in oblivion of the truth of Being. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Philosophical study that begins with the acting, feeling, living human individual. For the logical sense of the term, see Existential quantification. For other uses, see Existence disambiguation. Not to be confused with Essentialism.
Main article: Existence precedes essence. Main article: Absurdism. Main article: Facticity. This section may be too technical for most readers to understand. Please help improve it to make it understandable to non-experts , without removing the technical details. November Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: Authenticity. Main article: Other philosophy. Main article: Angst. Main article: Despair. See also: Existential crisis. See also: Positivism and Rationalism.
See also: Atheistic existentialism , Christian existentialism , and Jewish existentialism. See also: Existential nihilism. See also: Martin Heidegger. Main article: Existential therapy. Abandonment existentialism Disenchantment Existential phenomenology Existential risk Existential therapy Existentiell List of existentialists Meaning existential Meaning-making Nihilism Self Self-reflection. Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 2 March Oxford English Dictionary Online ed. Oxford University Press. Subscription or participating institution membership required. Nietzsche: A Biographical Introduction. Charles Scribner's Sons.
New York: Penguin. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Oxford Companion to Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. Introduction to Modern Existentialism. New York: Grove Press. Existentialism: From Dostoyevesky to Sartre. New York: Meridian. Existentialism - A Very Short Introduction. ISBN Basic Writings of Existentialism. Modern Library. In Edward N. Zalta ed. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy Summer Edition. Kierkegaard's attack upon "Christendom". Existentialism: basic writings. Hackett Publishing. The Cambridge Companion to Existentialism , Cambridge, , p.
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