① Manly Stereotypes
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The Straightest Dude Ever
Society should thank its lucky stars that not all men turn out straight, macho and insensitive. The different hetero and homo modes of maleness are not, of course, biologically fixed. Psychologist Joseph Pleck argues that a hierarchy of masculinity exists largely as a dichotomy of homosexual and heterosexual males: "Our society uses the male heterosexual-homosexual dichotomy as a central symbol for all the rankings of masculinity, for the division on any grounds between males who are "real men" and have power, and males who are not".
In the documentary The Butch Factor , gay men one of them transgender were asked about their views of masculinity. Masculine traits were generally seen as an advantage in and out of the closet , allowing "butch" gay men to conceal their sexual orientation longer while engaged in masculine activities such as sports. Effeminacy is inaccurately  associated with homosexuality ,  and some gay men doubted their sexual orientation; they did not see themselves as effeminate, and felt little connection to gay culture.
Feminine-looking men tended to come out earlier after being labeled gay by their peers. More likely to face bullying and harassment throughout their lives,  they are taunted by derogatory words such as " sissy " implying feminine qualities. Effeminate, " campy " gay men sometimes use what John R. Ballew called "camp humor", such as referring to one another by female pronouns according to Ballew, "a funny way of defusing hate directed toward us [gay men]" ; however, such humor "can cause us [gay men] to become confused in relation to how we feel about being men".
Identifying those aspects of being a man we most value and then cultivate those parts of our selves can lead to a healthier and less distorted sense of our own masculinity. A study by the Center for Theoretical Study at Charles University in Prague and the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic found significant differences in shape among the faces of heterosexual and gay men, with gay men having more "stereotypically masculine" features "undermin[ing] stereotypical notions of gay men as more feminine looking. Gay men have been presented in the media as feminine and open to ridicule, although films such as Brokeback Mountain are countering the stereotype. Second-wave pro-feminism paid greater attention to issues of sexuality, particularly the relationship between homosexual men and hegemonic masculinity.
This shift led to increased cooperation between the men's liberation and gay liberation movements developing, in part, because masculinity was understood as a social construct and in response to the universalization of "men" in previous men's movements. Men's-rights activists worked to stop second-wave feminists from influencing the gay-rights movement, promoting hypermasculinity as inherent to gay sexuality. Masculinity has played an important role in lesbian culture,  although lesbians vary widely in the degree to which they express masculinity and femininity.
In LGBT cultures, masculine women are often referred to as " butch ". Traditional avenues for men to gain honor were providing for their families and exercising leadership. From this perspective, in every social system there is a dominant hegemonic and idealised form of masculinity and an apotheosised form of femininity that is considered as proper for men and women.
This idealised form of masculinity hegemonic masculinity legitimates and normalises certain performances of men, and pathologises, marginalises, and subordinates any other expressions of masculinities or femininities masculine and feminine subject positions. Alongside hegemonic masculinity, Connell postulated that there are other forms of masculinities marginalised and subordinated , which according to the findings of a plethora of studies are constructed in oppressive ways Thorne This is symptomatic of the fact that hegemonic masculinity is relational, which means that it is constructed in relation to and against an Other emphasised femininity, marginalised and subordinated masculinities.
Researchers have argued that the "precariousness" of manhood contributes to traditionally-masculine behavior. In many cultures, boys endure painful initiation rituals to become men. Manhood may also be lost, as when a man is derided for not "being a man". Researchers have found that men respond to threats to their manhood by engaging in stereotypically-masculine behaviors and beliefs, such as supporting hierarchy, espousing homophobic beliefs, supporting aggression and choosing physical tasks over intellectual ones. In , Winegard and Geary wrote that the precariousness of manhood involves social status prestige or dominance , and manhood may be more or less precarious due to the avenues men have for achieving status.
Although often ignored in discussions of masculinity, women can also express masculine traits and behaviors. Although female masculinity is often associated with lesbianism , expressing masculinity is not necessarily related to a woman's sexuality. In feminist philosophy , female masculinity is often characterized as a type of gender performance which challenges traditional masculinity and male dominance. Kramer argues that the discussion of masculinity should be opened up "to include constructions of masculinity that uniquely affect women.
Women who participate in sports, especially male-dominated sports, are sometimes derided as being masculine. Even though most sports emphasize stereotypically masculine qualities, such as strength, competition, and aggression, women who participate in sports are still expected to conform to strictly feminine gender norms. Although traditional gender norms are gradually changing, female athletes, especially those that participate in male-dominated sports such as boxing, weight lifting, American football, ice hockey, and motor sports, are still often viewed as deviating from the boundaries of femininity and may suffer negative repercussions.
Women face a similar paradox in the business world, as corporate leadership roles are widely associated with stereotypically masculine characteristics. Women who adopt these characteristics may be more successful, but also more disliked due to not conforming with expected feminine stereotypes. Evidence points to the negative impact of hegemonic masculinity on men's health-related behavior, with American men making Twenty-five percent of men aged 45 to 60 do not have a personal physician, increasing their risk of death from heart disease. Men between 25 and 65 are four times more likely to die from cardiovascular disease than women, and are more likely to be diagnosed with a terminal illness because of their reluctance to see a doctor.
Reasons cited for not seeing a physician include fear, denial, embarrassment, a dislike of situations out of their control and the belief that visiting a doctor is not worth the time or cost. Studies of men in North America and Europe show that men who consume alcoholic drinks often do so in order to fulfill certain social expectations of manliness.
While the causes of drinking and alcoholism are complex and varied, gender roles and social expectations have a strong influence encouraging men to drink. In , Arran Stibbe published an analysis of a well-known men's-health magazine in According to Stibbe, although the magazine ostensibly focused on health it also promoted traditional masculine behaviors such as excessive consumption of convenience foods and meat, alcohol consumption and unsafe sex. In South Africa, HIV transmission was one of the significant reasons for the development of masculinities research. While many male clients frequently exhibited physical violence toward the female workers, in order to more overtly display their manliness, some men also admitted to being more sexually aggressive at times and purposefully having unprotected sex without the worker's knowledge.
Research on beer-commercial content by Lance Strate  yielded results relevant to a study of masculinity. Commercials often focus on situations in which a man overcomes an obstacle in a group, working or playing hard construction or farm workers or cowboys. Those involving play have central themes of mastery of nature or each other , risk and adventure: fishing, camping, playing sports or socializing in bars.
There is usually an element of danger and a focus on movement and speed watching fast cars or driving fast. The bar is a setting for the measurement of masculinity in skills such as billiards , strength, and drinking ability. Study of the history of masculinity emerged during the s, aided by the fields of women's and later gender history. This void was questioned during the late s, when women's history began to analyze gender and women to deepen the female experience. According to Scott, gender should be used in two ways: productive and produced.
Productive gender examined its role in creating power relationships, and produced gender explored the use and change of gender throughout history. This has influenced the field of masculinity, as seen in Pierre Bourdieu's definition of masculinity: produced by society and culture, and reproduced in daily life. Connell wrote that these initial works were marked by a "high level of generality" in "broad surveys of cultural norms".
The scholarship was aware of contemporary societal changes aiming to understand and evolve or liberate the male role in response to feminism. Two concerns over the study of the history of masculinity are that it would stabilize the historical process rather than change it and that a cultural overemphasis on the approach to masculinity lacks the reality of actual experience. According to John Tosh, masculinity has become a conceptual framework used by historians to enhance their cultural explorations instead of a specialty in its own right. In focusing on culture, it is difficult to gauge the degree to which films such as Scott of the Antarctic represented the era's masculine fantasies. According to Tosh, the culture of masculinity has outlived its usefulness because it cannot fulfill the initial aim of this history to discover how manhood was conditioned and experienced and he urged "questions of behaviour and agency".
Stefan Dudink believes that the methodological approach trying to categorize masculinity as a phenomenon undermined its historiographic development. Tosh's overall assessment is that a shift is needed in conceptualizing the topic  back to the history of masculinity as a speciality aiming to reach a broader audience, rather than as an analytical tool of cultural and social history. The importance he places on public history hearkens back to the initial aims of gender history, which sought to use history to enlighten and change the present. Tosh appeals to historians to live up to the "social expectation" of their work,  which would also require a greater focus on subjectivity and masculinity.
This view is contrary to Dudink's; the latter called for an "outflanking movement" towards the history of masculinity, in response to the errors he perceived in the study. In a study of the Low Countries , Dudink proposes moving beyond the history of masculinity by embedding analysis into the exploration of nation and nationalism making masculinity a lens through which to view conflict and nation-building. Media images of boys and young men may lead to the persistence of harmful concepts of masculinity. According to men's-rights activists, the media does not address men's-rights issues and men are often portrayed negatively in advertising. According to a paper submitted by Tracy Tylka to the American Psychological Association , "Instead of seeing a decrease in objectification of women in society, there has just been an increase in the objectification of both sexes.
And you can see that in the media today. Research in the United Kingdom found, "Younger men and women who read fitness and fashion magazines could be psychologically harmed by the images of perfect female and male physiques. In January , the American Psychological Association warns that conforming to traditional standards of masculinity can cause harm to mental health. In Eisler and Skidmore studied masculinity, creating the idea of "masculine stress" and finding three elements of masculinity which often result in emotional stress:. Because of social norms and pressures associated with masculinity, men with spinal-cord injuries must adapt their self-identity to the losses associated with such injuries; this may "lead to feelings of decreased physical and sexual prowess with lowered self-esteem and a loss of male identity.
Feelings of guilt and overall loss of control are also experienced. Brett Martin and Juergen Gnoth found that although feminine men privately preferred feminine models, they expressed a preference for traditional masculine models in public; according to the authors, this reflected social pressure on men to endorse traditional masculine norms. In their book Raising Cain: Protecting The Emotional Life of Boys , Dan Kindlon and Michael Thompson wrote that although all boys are born loving and empathic, exposure to gender socialization the tough male ideal and hypermasculinity limits their ability to function as emotionally-healthy adults. According to Kindlon and Thompson, boys lack the ability to understand and express emotions productively because of the stress imposed by masculine gender roles.
Cover goes over issues such as sexual assault and how it can be partially explained by hypermasculinity. A theory of "masculinity in crisis" has emerged;   Australian archeologist Peter McAllister said, "I have a strong feeling that masculinity is in crisis. Men are really searching for a role in modern society; the things we used to do aren't in much demand anymore". Deindustrialization and the replacement of smokestack industries by technology have allowed more women to enter the labor force, reducing its emphasis on physical strength.
The crisis has also been attributed to the questioning of male dominance and rights granted to men solely on the basis of sex following the feminist movement. According to John Beynon, masculinity and men are often conflated and it is unclear whether masculinity, men or both are in crisis. He writes that the "crisis" is not a recent phenomenon, illustrating several periods of masculine crisis throughout history some predating the women's movement and post-industrial society , suggesting that due to masculinity's fluid nature "crisis is constitutive of masculinity itself". In , the word "herbivore men" became popular in Japan and was reported worldwide. Herbivore men refers to young Japanese men who naturally detach themselves from masculinity.
Masahiro Morioka characterizes them as men 1 having gentle nature, 2 not bound by manliness, 3 not aggressive when it comes to romance, 4 viewing women as equals, and 5 hating emotional pain. Herbivore men are severely criticized by men who love masculinity. Masculinities as depicted in the media of countries categorized as the Global South can depict stereotypical gender roles in various ways. In India, such roles have been pushed through Bollywood films.
This has been observed in India with the expansion of availability of transnational men's magazines. Sports media outlets have not necessarily promoted a completely "Westernized" version of masculinity, and white, male sports icons may have had an impact when presented alongside those players of other races, such as Asians or black people. A study found that in Major League Baseball , for example, Korean players and their respective accomplishments tend to be pushed to the side when compared with white, male players in print media and online news outlets.
Novels may be affected by Westernized perceptions. Amjad Alsyouf argues that African novelists Tayeb Salih and Chinua Achebe , for example, bring some Western influence to the gender roles portrayed in their respective novels. Masculinity is also an important concept in advertisement branding in the Islamic culture. In Kuwait , Muslim men must remain vigilant in making sure that their consumption decisions are representative of the socially accepted masculine norms — particularly in regard to their fashion choices.
Men interested in wearing luxury fashion brands were often more concerned with making sure their choices were visually representative of a more professional and refined person, as opposed to someone that simply looked tough or strong. In the Japanese film Sooshokukeidanshi , one of the main characters is made to appear like more of an outsider than the other male characters because of his unique style choices being seen as less traditionally masculine than the cultural expectation is, in Japan. Adharsh Raj and Manash Pratim Goswami write that in India, young people often copy negative behaviors seen as being traditionally masculine in Bollywood films.
Bir Ankara Polisiyesi , was relatable to what they already experienced in their own day to day lives and therefore, saw violence as a seemingly reasonable thing to occur in the series. Amongst secondary school students in New Zealand , a study found that when examining print media advertisements, young girls occasionally fall back into a preconceived idea of what constitutes "typical" masculine behavior.
In the Global South , many societies still follow very patriarchal based norms. Through media depictions and real-life scenarios, men are seen as being the head of the family — those that provide financially, have decision making power, and really are in charge. The image of the nuclear family being the societal norm is also ever-present in many places. When men are not able to fulfill that traditionally masculine, fatherly role, they may have a difficult time proving themselves as being worthy enough to have relationships with their children.
They are often trying to provide for their own nuclear families and cannot also fulfill the cultural obligations commonly attached to fatherhood. While gender equality has not been achieved, changes are happening in regard to these commonly believed gender roles, particularly with gender justice work in the Global South. In New Delhi , India, males are more frequently becoming involved in this work, while also trying to remain mindful of how their privileged status as men affects the public perception of what they are doing. However, there are some who still very much see conflict and violence against women as simply going hand in hand with the those cultures.
Some want to shift the focus from specifically viewing females as the ones deserving of stronger rights to everyone deserving the opportunity to be viewed as an equal; however, this can create the potential for men to fall back into the mindset of "male victimhood," as opposed to focusing on female oppression. Although the survey indicated areas for further improvement, a significant recent finding comes in regard to men's childhood upbringing and their attitudes surrounding gender equality.
If men were raised seeing more equal division of household labor tasks, older female relatives working in non-traditional occupations, less violence toward females, etc. A study found some evidence that youth have perhaps, inadvertently, made contributions toward greater acceptance of gender equality. Popular culture consumed by youth and those of lesser social status in East Asia , including manga , singing competitions, bands, and more are starting to showcase more modernized males that combine some stereotypically masculine feminine aspects in their behaviors.
In South Africa , stricter governmental policies are being put into place regarding abuse and violence. Additionally, initiatives like the "One Man Can" program were formed, which aim to provide HIV prevention and an anti-violence program to men in the country. In , the program garnered much voluntary male participation in its gender equality work out of Afghanistan and Pakistan. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 6 October Set of qualities, characteristics or roles associated with boys and men. For other uses, see Masculine disambiguation.
For the book by Harvey Mansfield, see Manliness book. Main article: Nature versus nurture. Main article: Hegemonic masculinity. See also: Toxic masculinity. Main articles: Herbivore men and Straight man cancer. This section needs additional citations to secondary or tertiary sources such as review articles, monographs, or textbooks. Please add such references to provide context and establish the relevance of any primary research articles cited. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Regardless, Europeans upheld the concept that meat equals strength, masculinity, and ultimately, superiority.
Adams notes that the English bragged about how they were able to colonize India because their soldiers ate red meat unlike the native men. The governments also launched a victory-garden initiative using propaganda that featured only women planting and harvesting vegetables. Understanding the nuances helps us to better dissect the stereotypes and learn how to get past them. Culture is flexible and changes constantly, but it may take a while to get over entrenched beliefs on meat and gender roles. Fast food ads continue to target men with gendered cliches and expectations. The popularity of plant-based diets has, in some part, forced meat-centric companies to invest in vegetarian and vegan trends. She has previously worked as an editor for MSN.
She's a self-taught illustrator and a papyrophiliac at heart. When she's not putting baking soda on things, she's walking her year-old beagle, Lucas. Contact the author here. But not all stereotypes are bad — they may even be true, defining characteristics of culture and lifestyle. Quick, True or False: The national pastime in Germany is playing soccer while eating Sauerkraut dressed in Dirndls and Lederhosen with Kraftwerk and Rammstein playing in the background.
It finds its origin in reports from soldiers stationed in Germany after World War II, tourists attending Oktoberfest and the limited number of German music acts with international success. From there, stereotypical ideas of German culture have been reinforced by the global spread of German movies and music. Perhaps you thought German word order , pronunciation and crazy smashed-together German words were hard to understand. It is very interesting to see which preconceptions other people have about your country and whether these are true or not. It is a chance to see yourself through the eyes of another person. Of course, stereotypes are total cliches.
If you have international friends, you may quickly learn that people from different countries all have different stereotypes about your native land. Obviously, they are very generalized, simplified and are not a correct representation of all the people in a given country. However, the thing about stereotypes is that some of them are actually based on facts and address real national characteristics. Download: This blog post is available as a convenient and portable PDF that you can take anywhere. Click here to get a copy. Want to get a real glimpse of German culture, in all its varieties? Watch the authentic German videos on FluentU. FluentU takes real-world videos—like music videos, movie trailers, news and inspiring talks—and turns them into personalized language learning lessons.
And you can take it all on-the-go with the FluentU mobile app. In the business world and in general, Germans are known as straight shooters and not the most diplomatic bunch. This tendency can sometimes come off as downright rude, especially in cultures where there is a stronger emphasis on indirect communication. The reason is that Germans tend to be very goal-oriented in their interaction. They want to get right to the point, and not beat around the bush. Germany has an abundance of laws regulating all aspects of life see, for example, the German beer law below and its people like to obey them. This tendency is one of the many leftovers from the values propagated by the Prussians.
Prussia used to be a German kingdom known for its unusually well-organised and effective army. The amount of over-regulation in Germany can sometimes lead to a certain inflexibility. This love of rules manifests itself in many ways. For example, crossing the street as a pedestrian at a red traffic light is frowned upon, even if no car is coming. Every house has at least four different garbage cans: plastic and metal, paper, organic waste and general garbage.You reasons for the american civil war group people into a box and use that box to define them. Review of: Manly Stereotypes, C. Given that many of us Manly Stereotypes more nice Manly Stereotypes at work, we Manly Stereotypes assume that men would be Manly Stereotypes for being calm and unassuming. InArran Stibbe published Manly Stereotypes analysis Manly Stereotypes a Rat Saw God Reflection men's-health magazine in Research Manly Stereotypes that men macbeth language analysis Manly Stereotypes sadness Manly Stereotypes work Manly Stereotypes thought Manly Stereotypes as less deserving Manly Stereotypes that emotion as compared to Manly Stereotypes women.