⒈ Inhumanity In The Kite Runner

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Inhumanity In The Kite Runner

I reckon it's some sub-Hemingway Inhumanity In The Kite Runner Project Nim Research Paper Inhumanity In The Kite Runner. Edgar seldom mustered courage to visit Wuthering Heights openly. The contrast resembled what you see in Inhumanity In The Kite Runner a bleak, Case Study: Carlyle Avenue Crosswalk, coal The Mise-En-Scene In Citizen Kane for a beautiful fertile valley; and his voice Louise Erdrich The Leap Analysis greeting were as opposite as his aspect. Jihadists are mentally ill. They were of the Inhumanity In The Kite Runner curious character: odd transgressions that I never imagined previously. Page xi CHAP. Heathcliff dropped Inhumanity In The Kite Runner slight hand, Inhumanity In The Kite Runner stood looking at him Inhumanity In The Kite Runner till he Inhumanity In The Kite Runner to speak. Inhumanity In The Kite Runner, for the effects of bad tea Inhumanity In The Kite Runner bad temper! Not anxious to come in contact with their fangs, I sat still; but, imagining they would scarcely understand tacit insults, Inhumanity In The Kite Runner unfortunately indulged in winking and making faces at the Inhumanity In The Kite Runner, and some turn of my physiognomy so irritated madam, that she suddenly broke into a fury and leapt on my knees.

The Kite Runner - Psychoanalysis

She tries to convert them to Islam. However, her true passion is more Talibanesque. Moghadam is definitely an Aunt Lydia, the lead female tormentor of the Handmaids, right out of Gilead, circa As Muslim women are being tortured, honor-murdered by their families, or stoned to death, sometimes for refusing to wear the veil, many Western multiculturally and politically correct post-colonial feminists are deconstructing and wearing the face veil and the head scarf as symbols of anti-racism and as a form of respect when they visit Muslim countries. Such feminists are also silencing and demonizing all other views in academic journals, in the media, and on feminist internet groups. Such behavior seems to contradict feminist views of women as morally superior to men and as more compassionate and intuitive.

Like men, women are human beings and as such are as close to the apes as to the angels. Women are also aggressive, cruel, competitive, envious, sometimes lethally so, but mainly toward other women. I would not want to be at the mercy of a female prison guard—or a female concentration camp guard—in the West. Right now, some Afghan women are marching in favor of the Taliban. Of course, some are daring to protest Taliban rule and are facing terrifying violence as are the journalists who dare to cover their demonstrations. Misogynist thinking and actions exist in America today but not only among right-wing conservatives. It is also flourishing among our media and academic elites. Atwood the divine novelist is absolutely entitled to depict whatever she wishes.

But too many reviewers are playing partisan politics with her vision and are refusing to see other and larger global dangers contained in her work. Women here are not the only or even the greatest victims. It is vain of us to insist upon it. All of it remains terribly relevant. Sort order. The man finished the book. He closed the pages tightly together then put one foot on the floor then the other then used his hands to push himself up out of the chair and then put one foot in front of the other until he had walked all the way to the book shelf and then put the book on the book shelf.

The deer walked in. The man whirled around and fired once with his pistol and the brains of the deer went flying out the back of its head and painted the wall a color dark red like blood. The man sat The man finished the book. The man sat down again like a man sitting down. I didn't really like the book, said the dead deer. I reckon I was pretty conflicted, replied the man grimly. His writing style is pretty problematic. I reckon his style is perty silly, he just strings a bunch of them declarative statements together, like 'the man did this then the man did that etc", but they don't paint no picture, they're done totally unevocative of anything. I reckon it don't take no skill to just state in excessive detail what someone is doing.

It takes artistic skill to say it in a way that done bring it to life for the reader, and he don't done really do that. I reckon it's some sub-Hemingway shit he's doing. It's not all bad though. I reckon some some of the images t'were pretty powerful. And the judge is a memorable character. I reckon he's the only one though. All the rest of them there charac'ers ain't real memorable, like he done put no effort into 'em 'cause he spent all his time on the judge. And that there whole novel was all And real repetitiv' too.

I read that he doesn't see why people like Proust and James because he thinks all novels should be about life and death things. I reckon that's 'cause he's too obsessed with subject matter and not enough with style and art. The dead deer nodded and walked out. The man slowly got up again by putting one foot then the other on the floor and then used his hands to push himself up out of the chair. He fixed himself a drink and resolved not to take anymore book recommendations from Harold Bloom. View all comments. Shelves: blood-meridian. But unlike, say, the movie , the violence serves a purpose — in fact the gratuitousness itself serves a purpose. Like the mercenaries the narrative follows, the nonstop onslaught of cruelty after cruelty makes us jaded.

The story brings us to what we think is a peak of inhumanity that seems impossible to exceed, and just as we stop to lick our wounds, an even more perverse cruelty emerges. The bile that reaches the tip of our tongue at reading of a tree strewn with dead infants hung by their jaws at the beginning of the book a scene often sited to me as the point many readers stop becomes almost a casual passiveness when a character is beheaded later on.

We become one of these dead-eyed cowboys riding into town covered head-to-toe in dried blood and gristle. The story is based on My Confession , the questionably authentic autobiography of Civil War Commander Samuel Chamberlain, which recounts his youth with the notorious Glanton Gang — a group of American mercenaries hired by the Mexican government to slaughter Native Americans. He is larger than life. Over seven feet tall, corpulent, hairless, albino, described as having an infant-like face and preternaturally intelligent. He is a murderer, child killer, pedophile and genocidal sociopath.

But the question that plagues anyone who reads the book is — who is he really? The easiest conclusion is that he is the devil, or some other demon. His joyous evil and fiddle-playing are enough clues to come to that, but more controversial and less popular is the idea that he is actually the wrathful God of an uncaring universe. He spends a great deal of time illustrating new discoveries — be it an Indian vase or petroglyph — only to destroy it when finished. But here, there is no ascension; no salvation offered. He says that he will never die. View all 45 comments. Feb 05, Stephen rated it it was amazing Shelves: historical-fiction , life-changers , audiobook , literary-fiction , , 6-star-books , all-time-favorites , psychos , classics-americas , favorite-villains.

One feeling I have is that Cormac McCarthy is word-smithing sorcerer and a genius of devious subversion. He's taken the most romanticized genre in American literature, the Western, and savagely torn off its leathery, sun-weathered skin in aid of showing an unflinching, unparalleled depiction of man at his most brutal and most violent. See the child… He can neither read nor write and in him broods already a taste for mindless violence. All history present in that visage, the child the father of the man. The rest of the story follows the kid and his exploits with the Glanton Gang as they cut a swatch of violence across the borderlands that is unlike anything you are likely to have read about before. This is not a novel about the history of the borderlands or the atrocities that were committed there.

That is incidental to its purpose. Not a beautiful subject…but soooooooo beautifully done. He's also among the most amoral, depraved, sadistic, and remorselessly cruel individuals I have encountered in my reading. In the character of the Judge, McCarthy has distilled and personified the ultimate expression of war and violence. Fun guy huh? Historical law subverts it at every turn. If God meant to interfere in the degeneracy of mankind would he not have done so by now? Wolves cull themselves, man. What other creature could?

And is the race of man not more predacious yet? And again. With other people, with other sons. The Judge is described as huge, completely hairless and very pale. He speaks multiple languages, is well-versed in classic literature and has extensive knowledge of many of the natural sciences. Whatever his antecedents, he was something wholly other than their sum, nor was there system by which to divide him back into his origins for he would not go. Whoever would seek out his history through what unraveling of loins and ledgerbooks must stand at last darkened and dumb at the shore of a void without terminus or origin and whatever science he might bring to bear upon the dusty primal matter blowing down out of the millennia will discover no trace of ultimate atavistic egg by which to reckon his commencing.

His unique style combines both i sparse, but deeply layered prose similar to Hemingway i. The combination can be devastating and it's why I am so sure I only absorbed a fraction of what McCarthy was saying on the first read. Almost every sentence, if you go back and re-read it can be chewed more slowly to increase the amount the amount meaning and flavor released. This is the kind of book I think you should read once and then subsequently re-read a chapter at a time over a much longer period. At least that was my impression. No, not dream-like, more like nightmarish as McCarthy constantly transforms the settings into aspects that call to mind classical visions of hell. Here are a just a few quick examples I picked out: They rode through a region where iron will not rust nor tin varnish.

The ribbed frames of dead cattle under their patches of dried hide lay like the ruins of primitive boats upturned upon that shoreless void and they passed lurid and austere the black and desiccated shapes of horses and mules that travelers had stood afoot. These parched beasts had died with their necks stretched in agony in the sand and now upright and blind and lurching askew with scraps of blackened leather from the fretwork of their ribs they leaned with their long mouths howling after the endless tandem suns that passed above them. The riders rode on.

I was mistaken. Round two with McCarthy has found me once again knocked to the canvas with my brain reeling. I'd be hard-pressed to choose a winner between the two, but this one definitely has become the newest addition to my list of all time favorites. View all 55 comments. For me, this was my second time through and I liked it far better than my first reading. I shudder to think that the horrors visited upon the Indians and Mexicans and homesteaders were all based on fact. The apocalypse described in The Road is not too far a cry from the hellish country on the US-Mexico border which has not really changed if we exchange the scalper mercenaries for the drug cartels and yet the descriptions and language of Blood Meridian is more beautiful to me.

The symbolism here is quite strong and one wonders whether the author is a nihilist like his characters or if there is really some redeeming quality buried deep inside man I have not tried Suttree or Child of God, but they would have a hard time to top this one! View all 18 comments. Jul 18, Lyn rated it it was amazing. After reading Blood Meridian, I may never view a western film the same way again. To be certain, it is a masterpiece, a rare and unique work of literature that rises above classification and genre. And to be certain, McCarthy must be viewed as a great American writer, one of the greatest in our time. That having been said, this book is not for everyone; it is painfully brutal, violent at it's heart.

McCarthy's primitive writing style emphasizes this primal, bloody landscape like a Jonathon Edwar After reading Blood Meridian, I may never view a western film the same way again. McCarthy's primitive writing style emphasizes this primal, bloody landscape like a Jonathon Edwards sermon. Glanton and Judge Holden, based upon actual persons, have been written as archetypal villains.

The Judge may be a composite of Mephistopheles and Conrad's Mr. Kurtz, and perhaps even Richard III. Strong, powerful book. View all 32 comments. This is Jane Austen antimatter. Trying to convey how this was so different to anything I've ever read, it occurred to me that it was like a huge black vortex that would suck early nineteenth century marriage plot novels into the void. It's the complete obverse of sweet girlie stuff: no lurve, no irony I wonder if Cormac McCarthy has a humour mode? If he does, he certainly wasn't in it writing this , no insightful self-discovery or examination of the human heart.

No, this is bleak and bloody, go This is Jane Austen antimatter. No, this is bleak and bloody, gory and grisly, there are bludgeonings and beheadings, shootings and stabbings and skewerings and scalpings, and piles and piles and piles of corpses - as a film, I wouldn't have been able to stand it. How could I stand it here? Well, it was usually over pretty quickly. He doesn't dwell long and lovingly on every detail: radical and dramatic images burn on the mind's eye, but no prurient poking and puddling.

Nasty, brutish and short. Stomach churning, but not for too long. Then there is little in the way of plot. Bad, worse, or imbecile. So what pleasures does it afford, pleasures that can compensate for the horror? Or is it the horror that becomes pleasurable? Yes, that is the worrying thing - obviously the language is a wonder and can make up for much, but there is a very troubling phenomenon.

The reader begins to take on the reasoning of the charismatic, satanic Judge Holden: this is a game in which the stake is life itself. There is only life or death, nothing else. And the Glanton gang is so evil that we can take joy in their annihilation, and the kid is the only one who has shown the slightest faint scruple when it came to slaughtering, so we hope for his survival and follow keenly his fight for life. And did I mention the language? Majestic, portentous, weighty, reminiscent of Milton and Blake and the Bible. Sparse, terse dialogue. Sumptuous description. A fearless novel that shocks and troubles, especially when you realise that this is based on real events on the Texas borderlands in View all 90 comments.

Sep 07, Eric rated it it was ok Recommends it for: people who want to believe in the inherent evil of mankind. Shelves: literature. There are two ways to evaluate a book, as far as my unlearned mind can concoct at the moment. Stylish literary flourishes sometimes cloud our judgment when it comes to evaluating the plot itself, which is, after all, the reason why the book exists. This book is well written. If I'm a 11th grader, and I need to do a book report, I'm drooling over the blatant symbolism dripping from each page.

The scene is set admirably, though the repetitive nature of our brave hero's wanderings at least it's wit There are two ways to evaluate a book, as far as my unlearned mind can concoct at the moment. The scene is set admirably, though the repetitive nature of our brave hero's wanderings at least it's with symbolic reason lead to a paucity in novel adjectives by the 13th desert crossing. There are only so many ways one can say that it's hot, dry and empty.

And dry. Boy, that sun sure is strong. I'm there, I'm with you, all right, it sucks around here, phew, the sun's really beating down today. And there are a lot of bones. Dead things abound, OK, I get it. Then there's the story line. Explain to me again why I'm interested in the wanton marauding of a band of depraved demons? So, we enjoy the dashing of infants into rocks because of the supposed literary merits of the work? But, you say and without quotes you say it , that's what it was like. Oh yeah? It was like that? Says who? Why do you want to believe that it was like that? As bad as humankind is, our reality is not that despicable, though our souls may be. Why do we have to play follow the leader behind our impish pied piper, pretending an enlightened understanding of some grandiose truth, while all we really do is sate our own personal blood lusts?

I wonder. By the way, if neglecting quotation marks somehow makes the book classier, why not just go all out and remove spaces between words. You better believe I won't be speed reading the repetitive descriptions of how tired everyone is if there aren't any spaces. Why stop there, periods are for two bit hacks too. You're not a real author until you slaughter a few hundred non-innocents nay, no one is innocent while neglecting a basic courtesy to the reader. Who knows, I don't speak Spanish, maybe I'm just missing the point entirely. How do you say "flayed skin" in Spanish? View all 41 comments. May 18, Fabian rated it it was amazing. Cormac McCarthy's west of absolutes is a wonder to behold.

Villainous attacks on people devoid a home, desecration of the westland, listings of all things in the majestic, transitory landscape like observations by Darwin at the Galapagos in lush sometimes horrific detail, murky human psyches, no dialogue, and especially that campfire philosophy by which anyone can find some sort of meaning in their modern lives especially if you're fortunate enough to inhabit the places which Mr. McCarthy des Cormac McCarthy's west of absolutes is a wonder to behold.

McCarthy describes! The apocalyptic landscape of "The Road" is here, but it's thankfully not as literal as that novel about human annihilation after cataclysm. If you were shocked by the cannibals eating babies in that one This ultraviolent account is well researched, well versed, poetic. The "Blood Meridian" and the act of scalping are one: you simply lose most of your head as you look at the very promise the west has had to offer. My favorite line: "A lamb lost in the mountains cries.

Sometimes comes the mother. Sometimes comes the wolf View all 7 comments. Brutal and Poetic at the same time Just changed it to a five star, what the h This book is monumental. Seems like a contradiction, brutal and poetic, but somehow it works. The story is bleak, dark, bloody but also filled with beautiful descriptions of the countryside, the desert, the people in the book. The colorful Judge is some character. Tough book, not sure I took it all in and had to take some breaks during the read It was ev Brutal and Poetic at the same time It was evening of the following day when they entered San Diego. The expriest turned off to find them a doctor but the kid wandered on through the raw mud streets and out pas the houses of hide in their rows and across the gravel strand to the beach Loose strands of ambercolored kelp lay in a rubbery wrack at the tideline.

A dead seal. Beyond the inner bay part of a reef in a thin line like something foundered there on which the sea was teething. He squatted in the sand and watched the sun on the hammered face of the water. Out there island clouds emplaned upon a salmon colored othersea. Seafowl in silhouette. Downshore the dull surf boomed. There was a horse standing there staring out upon the darkening waters and a young colt that cavorted and trotted off and came back Based on historical events that took place on the Texas-Mexico border in the s, we follow and witness the grim and bloody coming of age of the Kid, a fourteen-year-old Tennessean who stumbles into a nightmarish world where Indians are murdered and the market for scalps is thriving They rode on and the sun in the east flushed pale streaks of light and then a deeper run of color like blood seeping up in sudden reaches flaring planewise and where the earth drained up into the sky at the edge of creation the top of the sun rose out of nothing like the head of a great read phallus until it cleared the unseen rim and sat squat and pulsing and malevolent behind them.

The shadows of the smallest stones lay like pencil lines across the sand and the shapes of the men and their mounts advanced elongate before them like strands of the night from which they'd ridden, like tentacles to bind them to the darkness yet to come. They rode with their heads down, faceless under their hats, like an army asleep on the march. By midmorning another man had died and they lifted him from the wagon where he'd stained the sacks he'd lain among and buried him also and road on View all 29 comments. The wiki page for 'manifest destiny' has a picture of a painting by John Gast depicting an angelic figure personification of America purposefully drifting towards the west, her pristine white robes and blonde curls billowing in the breeze, a book nestled in the crook of her arm.

Airborne, she awakens stretches of barren, craggy terrain to the magical touch of modernization. The landscapes she leaves behind are dotted by shipyards and railways and telegraph wires strung on poles but to her left The wiki page for 'manifest destiny' has a picture of a painting by John Gast depicting an angelic figure personification of America purposefully drifting towards the west, her pristine white robes and blonde curls billowing in the breeze, a book nestled in the crook of her arm.

The landscapes she leaves behind are dotted by shipyards and railways and telegraph wires strung on poles but to her left the canvas shows a murky abyss - skies darkened by smoke from volcanic eruptions and fleeing native Americans gazing up at the floating angel in alarm. Whenever I think of 'Blood Meridian' from now on, I hope my mind conjures up this same image not because both painting and novel provide perspectives, albeit contrary, on America's ambitious mid 19th century pursuit of extending its frontiers. But because Cormac McCarthy destroys this neat little piece of Imperialist propaganda so completely and irredeemably in his masterpiece, that all viewings of the image henceforth will merely serve to magnify the irony of this representation.

If John Gast's visualized panorama seeks to establish the legitimacy of the American Dream, vindicates the Godgiven right of determining the foundations of civilization, then McCarthy's vision of 'American Progress' brutally mocks the same and depicts the wild west as a lawless hunting ground submerged in a moral vaccuum. Here, there is no line of distinction between predator and prey. Heads are scalped, entrails ripped out, limbs dismembered, ears chopped off as trophies of war. Apaches, Mexicans, Caucasian men, women and children are skewered, bludgeoned, crucified and raped alike and so routinely and relentlessly that after a while the identities of victim and perpetrator blur into each other and only a dim awareness of any moral consideration remains at the periphery of our consciousness.

The barrel of the gun and the sharpness of the blade speak in the universal language of might over right and all humanly attributes are silenced into submission. The wrath of God lies sleeping. It was hid a million years before men were and only men have power to wake it. Hell aint half full. Hear me. Ye carry war of a madman's making onto a foreign land. Ye'll wake more than the dogs. There are no protagonists here. Only creatures of instinct shambling along sun-scorched sand dunes, mesas and buttes, pueblos and haciendas, gravel reefs and dusty chaparrals, oblivious of the passage of time or the context of their grotesque exploits, unhesitatingly leaving a trail of mutilated corpses, carcasses and torched Indian villages in their wake.

Jaded as one becomes from all the savagery, one does occasionally feel some measure of empathy for 'the kid' but then he vanishes often among the featureless, faceless individuals of Glanton's gang of scalp-hunters as they embark on a destination-less journey across the cruel, hostile terrain of the US-Mexican borderlands. In course of their blood-soaked, gory quest which McCarthy chronicles in exquisite turns of phrase, the identities of all the members of the band fuse together to symbolize something much more profound and terrible to comprehend all at once - the primeval human affinity for bloodshed which devours all distinctness of personality.

Only the ageless Judge Holden towers over the other characters as the Devil's advocate with his lofty oratory on the primacy of war and his unabashed exhibitionism and seeming invincibility. It is the testing of one's will and the will of another within that larger will which because it binds them is therefore forced to select. War is the ultimate game because war is at last a forcing of the unity of existence. War is god. In the last few pages when the Kid and the Judge parley in a sort of face off, I finally came to realize the real reason why the former is deprived of his centrality in the plot and relegated to the status of a mute presence in the background. As the eternal representative of the debilitating voice of morality which is always drowned out by fiercer cries for carnage, the Kid's internal sense of right and wrong, too, fails to resist the evil within.

The Devil's cogent arguments, no matter how preposterous at times, negate all sporadic pricks of conscience. The way of the world is to bloom and to flower and die but in the affairs of men there is no waning and the noon of his expression signals the onset of the night. Needless to say, this is the grim rationale that underpins all the interminable slaughter. And such a solemn message leaves one with a lingering suspicion that if we peeled away the glossy veneer of democracy, modernity and the daily grind of mechanistic endeavours and reduced any society of humans to its bare bones, McCarthy's apocalyptic vision of an amoral world is the only thing that might remain - a perpetual heart of darkness.

A conjecture as staggering in its enormity as it is bone-chilling. Perhaps, a conjecture with a modicum of truth to it. View all 47 comments. Aug 16, J. Kent Messum rated it it was amazing Shelves: hard-hitting , classic , must-read , chilling , dangerous-writing , what-writers-read , eye-opening , great-read , gritty , dark. Quite possibly the most chilling and horrifying book ever written, 'Blood Meridian' is a unnerving glimpse of humanity at its worst during one of the most savage periods in American history.

McCarthy pulls back the curtain to reveal the unforgivable evils and trespasses our species made all too often and all too easily in a new world, a novel that shows us the true price we paid in bodies and blood for the expansion of the 'Wild West'. Unlike some of Cormac's other work, 'Blood Meridian' is not Quite possibly the most chilling and horrifying book ever written, 'Blood Meridian' is a unnerving glimpse of humanity at its worst during one of the most savage periods in American history. Unlike some of Cormac's other work, 'Blood Meridian' is not a particularly easy read for either style or subject matter.

If your want to experience the work of this true literary master, I certainly wouldn't start with this book Try 'The Road', or 'No Country For Old Men' to get your feet wet. Generally, I only advocate that people read well-written work that is fluid, pacey, and has total command of the language. But there are a handful of exceptions where I honestly believe that a good deal of effort is also required from the reader.

Sometimes you will have to work to get through the pages, but it is rewarding in ways you might not anticipate. The brutality in this book is harrowing, and also true of the time. There have been countless analyses of it, so I won't get into the many themes, messages, and interpretations it offers. I will say that it does fall under the category of 'required reading' for everyone. However, it must be said that this book was not written for anyone's enjoyment. It wasn't written for entertainment. It was written to open your eyes to a hell on earth that humans willingly created, to open your ears to the beating of black hearts. If this book doesn't shake your faith in the human race, then nothing will.

View all 22 comments. Mar 27, Dan Schwent rated it really liked it Shelves: , homework-from-the-ladies. In the old west, a young man falls in with a bad crowd, scalphunters, and the worst of them all, the judge. It's not often when I can't figure out how to summarize a book. Not only does Blood Meridian fall into this category, I'm also struggling with trying to formulate my thoughts about it. I'm sure it's one of those big important books that has themes and things of that nature. It seems apocalyptic at times, with the judge showing the kid the horrors of the world, kind of like the devil and Jes In the old west, a young man falls in with a bad crowd, scalphunters, and the worst of them all, the judge.

It seems apocalyptic at times, with the judge showing the kid the horrors of the world, kind of like the devil and Jesus in the desert. Cormac McCarthy's prose is simple but powerful. It also feels really smooth, like he barely had to work at it at all to get it on the page. It has an almost Biblical feel to it. Once the kid hooks up with the judge and the Glantons, things get worse and worse, like getting kicked in the crotch by progressively more spiky shoes. There were a lot of times during my read of Blood Meridian where I had to stop and digest what I just read. It had a dreamlike, or nightmarish, quality a lot of the time. The judge is by far the most memorable character in the piece. The book really doesn't have much of a plot, just scene after scene of brutal violence.

I read a lot of detective stuff but this was one of the most violent books I've ever read. I could only read it for minutes at a time before I had to stop and digest. Lastly, what's with the lack of quotation marks? Was McCarthy sexually assaulted by quotation marks while he was a boy scout? Four stars, but not for the squeamish. If you have any amount of squeam in you, you'll be squeaming all over the place in no time.

View all 27 comments. Jun 17, Jessaka rated it it was amazing Shelves: western , lyrical-prose. Before man was, war waited for him. The ultimate trade awaiting its ultimate practitioner. It is said that McCarty's most beautiful and darkest prose occurs in this book. It is also said to be the most evil book written. You were there when it all happened, and that is how it should be if we really want to know evil. I kept putting this book down, leaving it for days. I just could not make friends with it. Then when reading it I would come upon some of the most haunting prose, and I would think, like others have, that I wanted to read the book again.

But most of all, I felt that I was not with the book, and the book was not with me. I hardly knew what was going on. Men gathered on horses and rode the southern borders of Texas and Arizona, maybe even New Mexico, just to find what who they could slaughter, and what they slaughtered were Mexicans and Indians. I saw their scalps being taken, their faces blown off. I saw it all like I had never saw it in any book before. Days went by before I could I pick the book up again, and by this time they were dashing babies against rocks, just like in the old testament, just like the Christians had dashed Indian babies against the rocks during the Indian Removal Act.

Just to shut them up. You don't get the bloody details in bible, but McCarthy's gives them to you in detail in the only way that he knows how. And at times I had to look away. I began feeling that there was nothing right about this book except for its prose. What is right about people who have no emotions when killing? And because they had no emotions this book had no emotions except for those that you felt when you read it. PART I. Embarks again for Georgia and arrives at Savanna--proceeds Southward and arrives at Sunbury--observations on the town, harbour, and the island of St. Catharine, its soil and productions--account of the establishment of St.

John's district and Midway meeting-house--description of a beautiful fish--proceeds for the river Alatamaha, description of a tremendous thunder storm--crosses the river at fort Barrington and arrives at St. Ille--passes the frontier settlements and meets an hostile Indian--crosses the river St. Mary and arrives at the trading-house, account of the country thereabout, its natural productions, of the lake Ouaquaphenogaw, said to be the source of the St.

Mary--returns to the Alatamaha and thence to Savanna. Sets off from Savanna to Augusta, one hundred sixty-five miles North-West from the sea coast--describes the face of the country, the river Savanna, the cataracts and village of Augusta--congress with the Indians at St. The Author leaves Broughton island and ascends the Alatamaha--night scene--a tempest--description of the river--ruins of an ancient fortification--Indian monuments at the Oakmulge fields--Creeks, account of their settlement in Georgia. Sets off from Savanna to East Florida, proceeding by land to the Alatamaha--descends that river to Frederica on the island of St.

Simons--describes the island and the city. Leaves Frederica for the lower trading-house on St. Juans--proceeds up the river alone in a small canoe; suffers by a gale of wind in crossing the river; is hospitality entertained at a gentleman's house, where he rents and sails again--describes fort Picolata--various productions, i. Magnolia grandiflora, Tillansia ulneadscites, floating fields of the Pistia stratiotes, the river and country, touches at Charlotteville--arrives at the lower trading-house.

Juans--character and comparison of the nations of the Lower and Upper Creeks or Siminoles. Sets out again on a journey to Tallahasochte--description of the Siminole horse--encamps at an enchanting grotto on the banks of a beautiful lake--rocky ridges and desart wilds--engagement between a hawk and the coach-whip-snake--description of the snake--account of the country, grand Pine forest--encamps on the borders of an extensive savanna--description of the savanna crane--came upon the verge of extensive savannas, lying on a beautiful lake--the expansive fields of Capola, decorated with delightful groves--squadrons Page vi of Siminole horse--a troop under the conduct and care of an Indian dog--the fields of Capola a delightful region--ferruginous rocks, rich iron ore--arrives at Talahasochte on the river Little St.

Juans--describes the town and river--Indian canoes--their voyages and traffic--Indian voyage to Cuba--a fishing party and naval race--an excursion to the Manatee spring--description of that incomparable nympheum--an account of the Manatee--crosses the river to explore the country--Spanish remains--vast Cane wildernesses--ancient Spanish plantations--Apalachean old fields--returns to town--White King's arrival--a council and feast--character of the king--leaves the town on researches, and encamps in the forests--account of an extraordinary eruption of waters--joins his companions at camp--entertainment by the White King in Talahasochte--preparation and use--returns to camp--great desart plains--entertainment with a party of young Siminole warriors--various natural wells and sinks; conjectures concerning them--account of the Long Pond, and delightful prospects adjacent--returns for the trading-house on St.

Juans--embarassments occasioned by the wild horses--encamps at Bird Island pond--vast number of wild fowl tending to their nests--engagement with an alligator who surprised the camp by night--observations on the great Alachua savanna and its environs--arrival at the trading-house. The Author makes an excursion again up St. Juans to Lake George--revisits Six Mile Springs and Illisium groves, makes collections, and recrosses the lake to the Eastern coast--that shore more bold and rocky than the opposite--coasts round that shore, touching at old deserted plantations--Perennial Cotton--Indigo--unpardonable devastation, and neglect of the white settlers, with respect to the native Orange groves--returns to the trading-house.

Indian warriors, their frolick--curious conference with the Long Warrior--ludicrous Indian farce relative to a rattle snake--war farce--farther account of the rattle snake--account and description of other snakes and animals--catalogue of birds of North America; observations concerning their migration, or annual passages from North to South, and back again. Page vii CHAP. Visits an Indian village on the river--water melon feast--description of the banqueting-house--makes an excursion across the river; great dangers in crossing; lands on the opposite shore--discovers a bee tree, which yielded a great quantity of honey--returns to the shore--embarks for Frederica in Georgia, visits the plantations down the river, enters the sound and passes through; arrives at Frederica--embarks again--touches at Sunbury--arrives in Charleston, South Carolina--meditates a journey to the Cherokee country and Creek Nation, in West Florida.

The Author sets out for the Cherokee territories--passes through a fine cultivated country--crosses Savanna river and enters the state of Georgia--Dirca palustris--cowpens--civil entertainment at a plantation--pursues the road to Augusta, and recrosses the river at Silver Bluff--account of Mr. Golphin's villa and trading-stores, Silver Bluff, fort Moore, Augusta, Savanna river, mountains of large fossil oyster-shells. Page viii CHAP. Set off from Whatoga to the Overhill towns--Jore village--Roaring Creek--the Author and his guide part--surprised by an indian--salute and part friendly--mountainous vegetable productions--arrives on the top of Jore mountain--sublime prospects--Atta-kul-kulla, grand Cherokee chief--gracious reception--returns to Cowe--great council-house--curious Indian dance--returns and stops at Senica--arrives again at fort James, Dartmouth--list of Cherokee towns and villages.

Rumsey--describes the island--large crimson Plum--a delicate species of Mimosa--passes Lake Pontchartrain, touches at the river Taensapaoa--passes over Lake Maurepas--proceeds Page ix up to Iberville--crosses by land to Manchac--goes up the Mississipi--settlements of New-Richmond--White Plains--curious muscle shells in the river--crosses over to Point Coupe--Spanish village and fortress--high cliffs opposite Point Coupe--returns to the Amete, thence down through the lakes and sounds--back again to Mobile. Short excursion in the South of Georgia--makes collections--gathers seed of two new and very curious shrubs.

Persons, character and qualifications of the aborigines--most perfect human figure--Muscogulge women--women of the Cherokees--arrogance of the Muscogulges, yet magnanimous and merciful to a vanquished enemy. Government and civil society--constitution simply natural--the mico or king presides in the senate--elective--yet mysterious--the next man in dignity and power is the great war chief--entirely independent of the mico--his voice in council of the greatest weight concerning military affairs--the high priest a person of consequence, and maintains great influence in their councils and constitution of state--these Indians not idolaters--they adore the Great Spirit, the giver and taker away of the breath of life, with the most profound homage and purity--anecdote.

Page xi CHAP. Concerning property, agriculture, arts and manufactures--private property--produce of their agricultural labours--common plantation--king's crib--public treasury--women the most ingenious and vigilant in mechanic arts and manufactures. Marriages and funeral rites--polygamy--take wives whilst they are yet young children--adultery--Muscogulges bury their dead in a sitting posture--strange customs of the Chactaws relative to duties to the deceased--bone-house--dirges--feast to the dead--methods which the nurses pursue to flatten the infant's skull and retain its form. Language and monuments--Muscogulge language spoken throughout the confederacy--agreeable to the ear, Cherokee language loud--pyramidal artificial hills or mounts, terraces, obelisks--high ways and artificial lakes--chunk yards--slave posts.

The attention of a traveller, should be particularly turned, in the first place, to the various works of Nature, to mark the distinctions of the climates he may explore, and to offer such useful observations on the different productions as may occur. Men and manners undoubtedly hold the first rank--whatever may contribute to our existence is also of equal importance, whether it be found in the animal or vegetable kingdoms; neither are the various articles, which tend to promote the happiness and convenience of mankind, to be disregarded.

How far the writer of the following sheets has succeeded in furnishing information on these subjects, the reader will be capable of determining. THIS world, as a glorious apartment of the boundless palace of the sovereign Creator, is furnished with an infinite variety of animated scenes, inexpressibly beautiful and pleasing, equally free to the inspection and enjoyment of all his creatures.

PERHAPS there is not any part of creation, within the reach of our observations, which exhibits a more glorious display of the Almighty hand, than the vegetable world. Such a variety of pleasing scenes, ever changing, throughout the seasons, arising from various causes and assigned each to the purpose and use determined. IT is difficult to pronounce which division of the earth, within the polar circles, produces the greatest variety. The tropical division certainly affords those which principally contribute to the more luxurious scenes of splendor, as Myrtus communis, Myrt.

Laurus camphor. Laurus Persica, Nux mosch. BUT the temperate zone including by far the greater portion of the earth, and a climate the most favourable to the increase and support of animal life, as well as for the exercise and activity of the human faculties exhibits scenes of infinitely greater variety, magnificence and consequence, with respect to human economy, in regard to the various uses of vegetables. FOR instance, Triticum Cereale, which affords us bread, and is termed, by way of eminence, the staff of life, the most pleasant and nourishing food--to all terrestrial animals.

Vitis vinifera, whose exhilirating juice is said to cheer the hearts of gods and men. IN every order of nature, we perceive a variety of qualities distributed amongst individuals, designed for different purposes and uses, yet it appears evident, that the great Author has impartially distributed his favours to his creatures, so that the attributes of each one seem to be of sufficient importance to manifest the divine and inimitable workmanship. The blushing Chironia and Rhexia, the spiral Ophrys with immaculate white flowers, the Limodorum, Arethusa pulcherima, Sarracenia purpurea, Sarracenia galeata, Sarracenia lacunosa, Sarracenia flava. Shall we analyze these beautiful plants, since they seem cheerfully to invite us?

How greatly the flowers of the yellow Sarracenia represent a silken canopy, the yellow pendant petals are the curtains, and the hollow leaves are not unlike the cornucopia or Amaltheas horn, what a quantity of water a leaf is capable of containing, about a pint! All the Sarracenia are insect catchers, and so is the Drossea rotundiflolia. BUT admirable are the properties of the extraordinary Dionea muscipula! A great extent on each side of that serpentine rivulet, is occupied by those sportive vegetables--let us advance to the spot in which nature has seated them. Astonishing production! Can we after viewing this object, hesitate a moment to confess, that vegetable beings are endued with some sensible faculties or attributes, similar to those that dignify animal nature; Page xxi they are organical, living and self-moving bodies, for we see here, in this plant, motion and volition.

WHAT power or faculty is it, that directs the cirri of the Cucurbita, Momordica, Vitis and other climbers, towards the twigs of shrubs, trees and other friendly support? Sponsalia plantarum, Amoen. Acad 1. Where is the essential difference between the seed of peas, peaches and other tribes of plants and trees, and that of oviparous animals? Let us begin at the source of terrestrial existence. Are not the seed of vegetables, and the eggs of oviparous animals fecundated, or influenced with the vivific principle of life, through the aproximation and intimacy of the sexes, and immediately after the eggs and seeds are hatched, the young larva and infant plant, by heat and moisture, rises into existence, increases, and in due time arrives to a state of perfect maturity.

The physiologists agree in opinion, that the work of generation in viviparious animals, is exactly similar, only more secret and inveloped. The mode of operation that nature pursues in the production of vegetables, and oviparous animals is infinitely more uniform and manifest, than that which is or can be discovered to take place in viviparous animals. THE most apparent difference between animals and vegetables are, that animals have the powers of sound, and are locomotive, whereas vegetables are not able to shift themselves from the places where nature has planted them: yet vegetables have the power of moving and exercising their members, and have the means of transplanting or colonising their tribes almost over the surface of the Page xxiii whole earth, some seeds, for instance, grapes, nuts, smilax, peas, and others, whose pulp or kernel is food for animals, such seed will remain several days without injuring in stomachs of pigeons and other birds of passage; by this means such sorts are distributed from place to place, even across seas; indeed some seeds require this preparation, by the digestive heat of the stomach of animals, to dissolve and detach the oily, viscid pulp, and to soften the hard shells of others.

Small seeds are sometimes furnished with rays of hair or down, and others with thin light membranes attached to them, which serve the purpose of wings, on which they mount upward, leaving the earth, float in the air, and are carried away by the swift winds to very remote regions before they settle on the earth; some are furnished with hooks, which catch hold of the wool and hair of animals passing by them, are by that means spread abroad; other seeds ripen in pericarpes, which open with elastic force, and shoot their seed to a very great distance round about; some other seeds, as of the Mosses and Fungi, are so very minute as to be invisible, light as atoms, and these mixing with the air, are wafted all over the world.

THE animal creation also, excites our admiration, and equally manifests the almighty power, wisdom and beneficence of the Supreme Creator and Sovereign Lord of the universe; Page xxiv some in their vast size and strength, as the mamoth, the elephant, the whale, the lion and alligator; others in agility; others in their beauty and elegance of colour, plumage and rapidity of flight, have the faculty of moving and living in the air; others for their immediate and indispensable use and convenience to man, in furnishing means for our clothing and sustenance, and administering to our help in the toils and labours through life; how wonderful is the mechanism of these finely formed, self-moving beings, how complicated their system, yet what unerring uniformity prevails through every tribe and particular species!

We admire the mechanism of a watch, and the fabric of a piece of brocade, as being the production of art; these merit our admiration, and must excite our esteem for the ingenious artist or modifier, but nature is the work of God omnipotent: and an elephant, even this world is comparatively but a very minute part of his works. If then the visible, the mechanical part of the animal creation, the mere material part is so admirably beautiful, harmonious and incomprehensible, what must be the intellectual system?

I AM sensible that the general opinion of philosophers, has distinguished the moral system of the brute creature from that of mankind, by an epithet wich implies a mere mechanical impulse, which leads and impels them to necessary action without any premeditated design or contrivance, this we term instinct which faculty we suppose to be inferior to reason in man. THE parental, and filial affections seem to be as ardent, their sensibility and attachment, as active and faithful, as those observed to be in human nature. WHEN travelling on the East coast of the isthmus of Florida, ascending the South Musquitoe river, in a canoe, we observed numbers of deer and bears, near the banks, and on the islands of the river, the bear were feeding on the fruit of the dwarf creeping Chamerops, this fruit is of the form and size of dates, and are delicious and nourishing food: we saw eleven bears in the course of the day, they seemed no way surprized or affrighted at the sight of us; in the evening my hunter, who was an excellent Page xxvi marksman, said that he would shoot one of them, for the sake of the skin and oil, for we had plenty and variety of provisions in our bark.

We accordingly, on sight of two of them, planned our approaches, as artfully as possible, by crossing over to the opposite shore, in order to get under cover of a small island, this we cautiously coasted round, to a point, which we apprehended would take us within shot of the bear, but here finding ourselves at too great a distance from them, and discovering that we must openly show ourselves, we had no other alternative to effect our purpose, but making oblique approaches; we gained gradually on our prey by this artifice, without their noticing us, finding ourselves near enough, the hunter fired, and laid the largest dead on the spot, where she stood, when presently the other, not seeming the least moved, at the report of our piece, approached the dead body, smelled, and pawed it, and appearing in agony, fell to weeping and looking upwards, then towards us, and cried out like a child.

IF we bestow but a very little attention to the economy of the animal creation, we shall find manifest examples of premeditation, perseverance, resolution, and consumate artifice, in order to effect their purpose. The next morning, after the slaughter of the bears whilst my companions were striking our tent and preparing to re-embark, I resolved to make a little botanical excursion alone; crossing over a narrow isthmus of sand hills which separated the river from the ocean, I passed over a pretty high hill, its summit crested with a few Palm trees, surrounded with an Orange grove; this hill, whose base was washed on one side, by the floods of the Musquitoe river, and he other side by the billows of the ocean, was about one hundred yards diameter, and seemed to be an entire heap of sea hills.

I continued along the beech, a quarter of a mile, and came up to a forest of the Agave vivipara though composed of herbaceous plants, I term it a forest, because their scapes or flower-stems arose erect near 30 feet high their tops regularly branching in the form of Page xxviii a pyramidal tree, and these plants growing near to each other, occupied a space of ground of several acres: when their seed is ripe they vegetate, and grow on the branches, until the scape dries when the young plants fall to the ground, take root, and fix themselves in the sand: the plant grows to a prodigious size before the scape shoots up from its centre. Having contemplated this admirable grove, I proceeded towards the shrubberies on the banks of the river, and though it was now late in December, the aromatic groves appeared in full bloom.

The broad leaved sweet Myrtus, Erythrina corrallodendrum, Cactus cochenellifer, Cacalia suffruticosa, and particularly, Rhizophora conjugata, which stood close to, and in the salt water of the river, were in full bloom, with beautiful white sweet scented flowers, which attracted to them, two or three species of very beautiful butterflies, one of which was black, the upper pair of its wings very long and narrow, marked with transverse stripes of pale yellow, with some spots of a crimson colour near the body.

Another species remarkable for splendor, was of a larger size, the wings were undulated and obtusely crenated round their ends, the nether pair terminating near the body, with a long narrow forked tail; the ground light yellow, striped oblique-transversely, with stripes of pale celestial blue, the ends of them adorned with Page xxix little eyes encircled with the finest blue and crimson, which represented a very brilliant rosary. But those which were the most numerous were as white as snow, their wings large, their ends lightly crenated and ciliated, forming a fringed border, faintly marked with little black crescents, their points downward, with a cluster of little brilliant orbs of blue and crimson, on the nether wings near the body; the numbers were incredible, and there seemed to be scarcely a flower for each fly, multitudinous as they were, besides clouds of them hovering over the mellifluous groves.

Besides these papiles, a variety of other insects come in for share, particularly several species of bees. The volatility of their species, and operation of their passions and affections, are particularly conspicuous in the different tribes of the thrush, famous for song; on a sweet May morning we see the red thrush turdus rufus perched on an elevated sprig of the snowy Hawthorn, sweet flowering Crab, or other hedge shrubs, exerting their accomplishments in song, striving by varying and elevating their voices to excel each other, we observe a very agreeable variation, not only in tone but in modulation; the voice of one is shrill, another lively and elevated, others sonorous and quivering.

The mock-bird turdus polyglottos who excels, distinguishes himself in variety of action as well as air; from a turret he bounds aloft with the celerity of an arrow, as it were to recover or recal his very soul, expired in the last elevated strain. The high forests are filled with the symphony of the song or wood-thrush turdus minor. The oriolus icterus, Cat. Some tribes of birds will relieve and rear up the young and helpless, of their own and other tribes, when abandoned. Animal substance seems to be the first food of all birds, even the granivorous tribes.

HAVING passed through some remarks, which appeared of sufficient consequence to be offered to the public, and which were most suitable to have a place in the introduction, I shall now offer such observations as must necessarily occur, from a careful attention to, and investigation of the manners of the Indian nations; being induced, while travelling among them, to associate with them, that I might judge for myself whether they were deserving of the severe censure, which prevailed against them among the white people, that they were incapable of civilization.

IN the consideration of this important subject it will be necessary to enquire, whether they were inclined to adopt the European modes of civil society? I was satisfied in discovering that they were desirous of becoming united with us, in civil and religious society. IT may, therefore, not be foreign to the subject, to point out the propriety of sending men of ability and virtue, under the authority of government, as friendly visitors, into their towns; let these men be instructed to learn perfectly their languages, and by a liberal and friendly intimacy, become acquainted with their customs and usages, religious and civil; their system of legislation and police, as well as their most ancient and present traditions and history.

These men thus enlightened and instructed, would be qualified to judge equitably, and when returned to us, to make true and just reports, which might assist the legislature of the United States to form, and offer to them a judicious plan, for their civilization and union with us. BUT I presume not to dictate in these high concerns of government, and I am fully convinced that such important matters are far above my ability; the duty and respect we owe to religion and rectitude, the most acceptable incense we can offer to the Almighty, as an attonement for our negligence, in the care of the present and future well being of our Indian brethren, induces me to mention this matter, though perhaps of greater concernment than we generally are aware of.

Page 1 Illustration. AT the request of Dr. Fothergill, of London, to search the Floridas, and the western parts of Carolina and Georgia, for the discovery of rare and useful productions of nature, chiefly in the vegetable kingdom; in April, , I embarked for Charleston, South-Carolina, on board the brigantine Charleston Packet, Captain Wright, the brig, Captain Mason, being in company with us, and bound to the same port. We had a pleasant run down the Delaware, miles to Cape Henlopen, the two vessels entering the Atlantic together. For the first twenty-four hours, we had a prosperous gale, and were cheerful and happy in Page 2 the prospect of a quick and pleasant voyage; but, alas!

The powerful winds, now rushing forth from their secret abodes, suddenly spread terror and devastation; and the wide ocean, which, a few moments past, was gentle and placid, is now thrown into disorder, and heaped into mountains, whose white curling crests seem to sweep the skies! THIS furious gale continued near two days and nights, and not a little damaged our sails, cabin furniture, and state-rooms, besides retarding our passage.

The storm having abated, a lively gale from N. Mason, who soon came up with us. We hailed each other, being joyful to meet again, after so many dangers. He suffered greatly by the gale, but providentially made a good harbour within Cape Hatteras. As he ran by us, he threw on board ten or a dozen bass, a large and delicious fish, having caught a great number of them whilst he was detained in harbour. He got into Charleston that evening, and we the next morning, about eleven o'clock.

THERE are few objects out at sea to attract the notice of the traveller, but what are sublime, awful, and majestic: the seas themselves, in a tempest, exhibit a tremendous scene, where the winds assert their power, and, in furious conflict, seem to set the ocean on fire. ON my arrival at Charleston, I waited on Doctor Chalmer, a gentleman of eminence in his profession and public employments, to whom I was recommended by my worthy patron, and to whom I was to apply for counsel and assistance, for carrying into effect my intended travels: the Doctor received me with perfect politeness, and, on every occasion, treated me with friendship; and by means of the countenance which he gave me, and the marks of esteem with which he honoured me, I became acquainted with many of the worthy families, not only of Carolina and Georgia, but also in the distant countries of Florida.

Page 4 CHAP. ARRIVING in Carolina very early in the spring vegetation was not sufficiently advanced to invite me into the western parts of this state; from which circumstance, I concluded to make an excursion into Georgia; accordingly, I embarked on board a coasting vessel, and in twenty-four hours arrived in Savanna, the capital, where, acquainting the Governor, Sir J. Wright, with my business, his Excellency received me with great politeness, shewed me every mark of esteem and regard, and furnished me with letters to the principal inhabitants of the state, which were of great service to me. Another circumstance very opportunely occurred on my arrival: the Assembly was then fitting in Savanna, and several members lodging in the same house where I took up my quarters, I became acquainted with several worthy characters, who invited me to call at their seats occasionally, as I passed through the country; particularly the Hon.

Andrews, Esq; a distinguished, patriotic and liberal, character. This gentleman's seat, and well cultivated plantations, are situated near the south high road, which I often travelled; and I seldom passed his house without calling to see him, for it was the seat of virtue, where hospitality, piety, and philosophy, formed the happy family; where the weary traveller and stranger found a hearty welcome, and from whence it must be his own fault, if he departed without being greatly benefited. AFTER resting, and a little recreation for a few days in Savanna, and having in the mean time purchased a good horse, and equipped myself for a journey southward, I sat off early in the morning for Sunbury, a sea-port town, beautifully situated on the main, between Medway and Newport rivers, about fifteen miles south of Great Ogeeche river.

The town and harbour are defended from the fury of the seas by the north and south points of St. Helena and South Catherine's islands; between which is the bar and entrance into the sound: the harbour is capacious and safe, and has water enough for ships of great burthen. I arrived here in the evening, in company with a gentleman, one of the inhabitants, who politely introduced me to one of the principal families, where I supped and spent the evening in a circle of genteel and polite ladies and gentlemen. Next day, being desirous of visiting the islands, I forded a narrow shoal, part of the sound, and landed on one of them, which employed me the whole day to explore. The surface and vegetable mould here is generally a loose sand, not very fertile, except some spots bordering on the sound and inlets, where are found heaps or mounds of sea-shell, either formerly brought there, by the Indians, who inhabited the island, or which were perhaps thrown up in ridges, by the beating surface of the sea: possibly both these circumstances may have contributed to their formation.

These sea-shells, through length of time, and the subtle penetrating effects of the air, which dissolve them to earth, render these ridges very fertile, and which, when clear of their trees, and cultivated, become profusely productive of almost every kind of vegetable. Kalmia angustifolia, Kalmia ciliata, Chionanthus, Cephalanthos, Aesculus parva, and the intermediate spaces, surrounding and lying between the ridges and savannas, are intersected with plains of the dwarf prickly fan-leaved Palmetto, and lawns of grass variegated with stately trees of the great Broom-Pine, and the spreading ever-green Water-Oak, either disposed in clumps, or scatteringly planted by nature. The upper surface, or vegetative soil of the island, lies on a foundation, or stratum, of tenaceous cinerious coloured clay, which perhaps is the principal support of the vast growth of timber that arises from the surface, which is little more than a mixture of fine white sand and dissolved vegetables, serving as a nursery bed to hatch, or bring into existence, the infant plant, and to supply it with aliment and food, suitable to its delicacy and tender frame, until the roots, acquiring sufficient extent and solidity to lay hold of the clay, soon attain a magnitude and stability sufficient to maintain its station.

Probably if this clay were dug out, and cast upon the surface, after being meliorated by the saline or nitrous qualities of the air, it would kindly incorporate with the loose sand, and become a productive and lasting manure. The roebuck, or deer, are numerous on this island; the tyger, wolf, and bear, hold yet some possession; as also raccoons, foxes, hares, squirrels, rats and mice, but I think no moles; there is a large ground-rat, more than twice the size of the common Norway rat. In the night time, it throws out the earth, forming little mounds, or hillocks. Opposoms are here in abundance, as also pole-cats, wild-cats, rattle-snakes, glass-snake, coach-whip snake, and a variety of other serpents.

HERE are also a great variety of birds, through out the seasons, inhabiting both sea and land. First I shall name the eagle, of which there are three species: the great grey eagle is the largest, of great strength and high flight; he chiefly preys on fawns and other young quadrupeds. THE bald eagle is likewise a large, strong, and very active bird, but an execrable tyrant: he supports his assumed dignity and grandeur by rapine and violence, extorting unreasonable tribute and subsidy from all the feathered nations. THE last of this race I shall mention is the falco piscatorius, or fishing-hawk: this is a large bird, of high and rapid flight; his wings are very long and pointed, and he spreads a vast sail, in proportion to the volume of his body.

This princely bird subsists entirely on fish, which he takes himself, scorning to live and grow fat on the dear earned labours of another; he also contributes liberally to the support of the bald eagle. Carolina, particularly his painted finch Emberiza Ceris Linn. CATESBY'S ground doves are also here in abundance: they are remarkably beautiful, about the size of a sparrow, and their soft and plaintive cooing perfectly enchanting.

How chaste the dove! She flees the seats of envy and strife, and seeks the retired paths of peace. THE sight of this delightful and productive island, placed in front of the rising city of Sunbury, quickly induced me to explore it; which I apprehended, from former visits to this coast, would exhibit a comprehensive epitome of the history of all the sea-coast islands of Carolina and Georgia, as likewise in general of the coast of the main; and as I considered this excursion along the coast of Georgia and northern border of Florida, a deviation from the high road of my intended travels, yet I performed it in order to employ to the most advantage the time on my hands, before the treaty of Augusta came on, where I was to attend, about May or June, by desire of the Superintendant, J.

Stewart, Esq; who, when I was in Charleston, proposed, in order to facilitate my travels in the Indian territories, that, if I would be present at the Congress, he would introduce my business to the chiefs of the Cherokees, Creeks, and other nations, and recommend me to their friendship and protection; which promise he fully performed, and it proved of great service to me. OBEDIENT to the admonitions of my attendant spirit, curiosity, as well as to gratify the expectations of my worthy patron, I again sat off on my southern excursion, and left Sunbury, in company with several of its polite inhabitants, who were going to Medway meeting, a very large and well constructed place of worship, in St.

John's parish, where I associated with them in religious exercise, and heard a very excellent sermon, delivered by their pious and truly venerable pastor, the Rev. This respectable congregation is Page 10 independent, and consist chiefly of families, and proselytes to a flock, which this pious man led, about forty years ago, from South-Carolina, and settled in this fruitful district. It is about nine miles from Sunbury to Medway meeting-house, which stands on the high road, opposite the Sunbury road. As soon as the congregation broke up, I re-assumed my travels, proceeding down the high road, towards Fort Barrington, on the Alatamaha, passing through a level country, well watered by large streams, branches of Medway and Newport rivers, coursing from extensive swamps and marshes, their sources: these swamps are daily clearing and improving into large fruitful rice plantations, aggrandizing the well inhabited and rich district of St.

John's parish. The road is strait, spacious, and kept in excellent repair by the industrious inhabitants; and is generally bordered on each side with a light grove, consisting of the following trees and shrubs: Myrica Cerifera, Calycanthus, Halesia tetraptera, Itea stewartia, Andromeda nitida, Cyrella racemiflora, entwined with bands and garlands of Bignonia sempervirens, B. Phillos; and on the verges of the canals, where the road was causwayed, stood the Cupressus disticha, Floriferus Gordonia Lacianthus, and Magnolia glauca, all planted by nature, and left standing, by the virtuous inhabitants, to shade the road and perfume the sultry air.

The extensive plantations of rice and corn, now in early verdure, decorated here and there with groves of floriferous and fragrant trees and shrubs, under the Page 11 cover and protection of pyramidal laurels and plumed palms, which now and then break through upon the sight from both sides of the way as we pass along; the eye at intervals stealing a view at the humble, but elegant and neat habitation, of the happy proprietor, amidst arbours and groves, all day, and moon-light nights, filled with the melody of the chearful mockbird, warbling nonpareil, and plaintive turtle dove, altogether present a view of magnificence and joy, inexpressibly charming and animating.

IN the evening, I arrived at the seat of the Hon. Andrews, Esq; who received and entertained me in every respect, as a worthy gentleman could a stranger, that is, with hearty welcome, plain but plentiful board, free conversation and liberality of sentiment. I spent the evening very agreeably, and the day following for I was not permitted to depart sooner I viewed with pleasure this gentleman's exemplary improvements in agriculture; particularly in the growth of rice, and in his machines for shelling that valuable grain, which stands in the water almost from the time it is sown, until within a few days before it is reaped, when they draw off the water by sluices, which ripens it all at once, and when the heads or panicles are dry ripe, it is reaped and left standing in the field, in small ricks, until the straw is quite dry, when it is hauled, and stacked in the barn yard.

The machines for cleaning the rice are worked by the force of water. They stand on the great reservoir which contains the waters that flood the rice fields below. We chose a shaded retreat, in a beautiful grove of magnolias, myrtles, and sweet bay trees, Page 12 which were left standing on the bank of a fine creek, that, from this place, took a slow serpentine course through the plantation. We presently took some fish, one kind of which is very beautiful; they call it the red-belly. It is as large as a man's hand, nearly oval and thin, being compressed on each side; the tail is beautifully formed; the top of the head and back, of an olive green, besprinkled with russet specks; the sides of a sea grean , inclining to azure, insensibly blended with the olive above, and beneath lightens to a silvery white, or pearl colour, elegantly powdered with specks of the finest green, russet and gold; the belly is of a bright scarlet red, or vermilion, darting up rays or fiery streaks into the pearl on each side; the ultimate angle of the branchiostega extends backwards with a long spatula, ending with a round, or oval particoloured spot, representing the eye in the long feathers of a peacock's train, verged round with a thin flame-coloured membrane, and appears like a brilliant ruby fixed on the side of the fish; the eyes are large, encircled with fiery iris; they are a voracious fish, and are easily caught with a suitable bait.

THE next morning I took leave of this worthy family, and sat off for the settlements on the Alatahama, still pursuing the high road for Fort Barrington, till towards noon, when I turned off to the left, following the road to Darian, a settlement on the river, twenty miles lower down, and near the coast. The fore part of this day's journey was pleasant, the plantations frequent, and the roads in tolerable good repair. But the country being now less cultivated, the roads became bad, pursuing my journey almost continually, through swamps and creeks, waters of Newport and Sapello, till night, Page 13 when I lost my way; but coming up to a fence, I saw a glimmering light, which conducted me to a house, where I stayed all night, and met with very civil entertainment.

Early next morning, I sat off again, in company with the overseer of the farm, who piloted me through a large and difficult swamp, when we parted; he in chase of deer, and I towards Darian. I rode several miles through a high forest of pines, thinly growing on a level plain, which admitted an ample view, and a free circulation of air, to another swamp; and crossing a considerable branch of Sapello river, I then came to a small plantation by the side of another swamp: the people were remarkably civil and hospitable. The man's name was M'Intosh, a family of the first colony established in Georgia, under the conduct of General Oglethorpe. Was there ever such a scene of primitive simplicity, as was here exhibited, since the days of the good King Tammany!

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