① Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies

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Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies



This insect Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies to roughly 10 cm 4 in and reproduces parthenogenicallyand How Did Martin Luther King Jr Contribute To The Civil Rights Movement Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies have been Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies, they Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies rare. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine. Piggy, disheartened by the waste of their only firewood, chastises Jack, and the two argue bitterly. Adult flies normally live Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies two to four Gun Control Case Study, but can hibernate during the winter. Ernst vom rath Wikipedia, Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies free encyclopedia. The order Phasmatodea is sometimes considered to be related to other orders, including the Blattodea Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies, Mantodea Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies, Notoptera and Dermapterabut the affiliations are uncertain and the grouping sometimes referred to as "Orthopteroidea" may be paraphyletic not have a common ancestor and hence invalid in the traditional circumscription set of attributes that all members have.

Lord of the Flies - Human Behavior

He looks to Piggy for affirmation of his authority. Ralph announces to the boys the results of the morning's explorations. He explains that they are on an uninhabited island. At this point, Jack interjects and insists that they need an army to hunt the pigs. Ralph, Jack, and Simon excitedly describe to the others their encounter with the piglet, Jack insisting defensively that it "got away" before he had the chance to stab and kill it, and vowing again to kill it "next time.

Recognizing that the meeting has devolved into disorder, Ralph announces that they will have to establish rules, not only in meetings, but also to organize day-to-day life. He states that, in meetings, the boys will have to raise their hands, like in school, so as to ensure that they speak one at a time. The boy whose turn it is to speak will receive the conch shell, which he will hold while talking, and then will pass it along to the next speaker. Jack interrupts to approve of the imposition of rules, and he begins excitedly explaining the punishment that will result from breaking them. Piggy, grabbing the conch from Ralph, reprimands Jack for "hindering Ralph. The boys fall into an anxious silence. Ralph, taking the conch again from Piggy, reassures the other boys, explaining that the island is theirs-and until the grown-ups come they will have fun.

He says that it will be like a novel, and the others, excited once more, begin shouting the names of their favorite island adventure novels: Treasure Island , Swallows and Amazons , and The Coral Island. Ralph quiets the assembly by waving the conch. A small six-year-old boy whose face is half-covered by a red birthmark stands hesitantly to request the conch. He appears as if he is about to cry; once he has possession of the conch, he asks Ralph what the group will do about a snake-thing, which he describes as a "beastie" that appeared to him in the forest. Ralph assures the group that such animals only live in large countries, like those in Africa, so the boy must have dreamt the beastie in the aftermath of the crash. The boys seem largely reassured, though Ralph notices some signs of doubt on the faces of the younger children.

Ralph tells the boys that their goal while stranded shall be twofold: one, they should try to ensure their rescue, and two, they should try to have fun. He assures them that, as his Naval Commander father told him, there are no unknown islands on the planet, and thus they will be rescued. The others break into spontaneous applause at Ralph's confidence in their rescue. He then explains to the group the details of his rescue plan. Ralph suggests that they build a fire on the top of the mountain, for the smoke will signal their presence to passing ships.

Jack summons the boys to come build a fire on the mountaintop, and they immediately follow, leaving Piggy and Ralph behind to discuss the outcome of the meeting. Piggy expresses disgust at the childish behavior of the boys as Ralph catches up to the group and helps them carry piles of wood to the mountaintop. Eventually, the task proves too difficult for some of the smaller boys, who lose interest and search for fruit to eat.

When they have gathered enough wood, Ralph and Jack wonder how to start a fire. Piggy arrives, and Jack suggests that they use his glasses. Jack snatches the glasses from Piggy, who can barely see without them. A boy named Maurice suggests that they use green branches to ignite the fire. After a few attempts, the glasses concentrate the rays of the sun and start a fire. Though the boys are mesmerized by the fire, it soon burns out. Piggy, disheartened by the waste of their only firewood, chastises Jack, and the two argue bitterly. Ralph grabs the conch from Piggy and again reminds the group of the importance of rules. Jack agrees, explaining that they are not savages, they are English, and the English are the best at everything, so they must follow the right rules.

Ralph concedes they might never be saved, and Piggy claims that he has been saying that, but nobody has listened. They get the fire going once more. Each wing has a lobe at the back, the calypter , covering the haltere. The abdomen is gray or yellowish with a dark stripe and irregular dark markings at the side. It has 10 segments which bear spiracles for respiration. In males, the ninth segment bears a pair of claspers for copulation, and the 10th bears anal cerci in both sexes. A variety of species around the world appear similar to the housefly, such as the lesser house fly , Fannia canicularis ; the stable fly , Stomoxys calcitrans ; [14] and other members of the genus Musca such as M.

The housefly is probably the insect with the widest distribution in the world; it is largely associated with humans and has accompanied them around the globe. It is present in the Arctic , as well as in the tropics, where it is abundant. Though the order of flies Diptera is much older, true houseflies are believed to have evolved in the beginning of the Cenozoic Era. They are thought to have originated in the southern Palearctic region, particularly the Middle East. Because of their close, commensal relationship with humans, they probably owe their worldwide dispersal to co-migration with humans. The housefly was first described as Musca domestica in based on the common European specimens by the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his Systema naturae and continues to be classified under that name.

Other Nematocera crane flies, mosquitoes, etc. Tabanomorpha horse flies, etc. Other Muscomorpha robber flies, etc. Syrphoidea hoverflies. Acalyptratae marsh flies, etc. Hippoboscoidea louse flies, bat flies, etc. Oestroidea blow flies, flesh flies, etc. Fanniidae , Scathophagidae , Anthomyiidae. Each female housefly can lay up to eggs in her lifetime, in several batches of about 75 to The eggs are white and are about 1. Within a day, larvae maggots hatch from the eggs; they live and feed where they were laid. The larvae avoid light; the interiors of heaps of animal manure provide nutrient-rich sites and ideal growing conditions, warm, moist, and dark. At the end of their third instar , the larvae crawl to a dry, cool place and transform into pupae.

The pupal case is cylindrical with rounded ends, about 1. It is yellowish at first, darkening through red and brown to nearly black as it ages. When metamorphosis is complete, the adult housefly emerges from the pupa. To do this, it uses the ptilinum , an eversible pouch on its head, to tear open the end of the pupal case. The adult housefly lives from two weeks to one month in the wild, or longer in benign laboratory conditions. Having emerged from the pupa, it ceases to grow; a small fly is not necessarily a young fly, but is instead the result of getting insufficient food during the larval stage.

Male houseflies are sexually mature after 16 hours and females after Females produce a pheromone , Z tricosene muscalure. This cuticular hydrocarbon is not released into the air and males sense it only on contact with females; [13] it has found use as in pest control, for luring males to fly traps. He climbs on to her thorax, and if she is receptive, a courtship period follows, in which the female vibrates her wings and the male strokes her head.

The male then reverses onto her abdomen and the female pushes her ovipositor into his genital opening; copulation, with sperm transfer, lasts for several minutes. Females normally mate only once and then reject further advances from males, while males mate multiple times. The larvae depend on warmth and sufficient moisture to develop; generally, the warmer the temperature, the faster they grow. In general, fresh swine and chicken manures present the best conditions for the developing larvae, reducing the larval period and increasing the size of the pupae. The life cycle can be completed in seven to 10 days under optimal conditions, but may take up to two months in adverse circumstances.

In temperate regions, 12 generations may occur per year, and in the tropics and subtropics, more than Houseflies play an important ecological role in breaking down and recycling organic matter. Adults are mainly carnivorous ; their primary food is animal matter, carrion , and feces , but they also consume milk, sugary substances, and rotting fruit and vegetables.

Solid foods are softened with saliva before being sucked up. Adult houseflies are diurnal and rest at night. If inside a building after dark, they tend to congregate on ceilings, beams, and overhead wires, while out of doors, they crawl into foliage or long grass, or rest in shrubs and trees or on wires. They arouse in the spring when the weather warms up, and search out a place to lay their eggs. Houseflies have many predators, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, various insects, and spiders. The eggs, larvae, and pupae have many species of stage-specific parasites and parasitoids.

Some of the more important are the parasitic wasps Muscidifurax uniraptor and Spalangia cameroni ; these lay their eggs in the housefly larvae tissue and their offspring complete their development before the adult houseflies can emerge from the pupae. Houseflies sometimes carry phoretic nonparasitic passengers, including mites such as Macrocheles muscaedomesticae [34] and the pseudoscorpion Lamprochernes chyzeri. The pathogenic fungus Entomophthora muscae causes a fatal disease in houseflies. After infection, the fungal hyphae grow throughout the body, killing the housefly in about five days.

Infected houseflies have been known to seek high temperatures that could suppress the growth of the fungus. Affected females tend to be more attractive to males, but the fungus-host interactions have not been fully understood. Houseflies are a nuisance, disturbing people while at leisure and at work, but they are disliked principally because of their habits of contaminating foodstuffs. They alternate between breeding and feeding in dirty places with feeding on human foods, during which process they soften the food with saliva and deposit their feces, creating a health hazard.

Houseflies have been used in art and artifacts in many cultures. In 16th- and 17th-century European vanitas paintings, houseflies sometimes occur as memento mori. They may also be used for other effects as in the Flemish painting, the Master of Frankfurt Housefly amulets were popular in ancient Egypt. Houseflies can fly for several kilometers from their breeding places, [44] carrying a wide variety of organisms on their hairs, mouthparts, vomitus, and feces. Parasites carried include cysts of protozoa , e. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia and eggs of helminths; e. In the early 20th century, Canadian public health workers believed that the control of houseflies was important in controlling the spread of tuberculosis.

A "swat that fly" contest was held for children in Montreal in The belief that housefly control was the key to disease control continued, with extensive use of insecticidal spraying well until the mids, declining only after the introduction of Salk's vaccine. Japanese Yagi bombs developed at Pingfan consisted of two compartments, one with houseflies and another with a bacterial slurry that coated the houseflies prior to release. Vibrio cholerae , which causes cholera, was the bacterium of choice, and was used in China in Baoshan in , and in northern Shandong in Baoshan had been used by the Allies and bombing produced epidemics that killed 60, people in the initial stages, reaching a radius of kilometres mi which finally took a toll of , victims. The Shandong attack killed ,; the occupying Japanese troops had been vaccinated in advance.

The ability of housefly larvae to feed and develop in a wide range of decaying organic matter is important for recycling of nutrients in nature. This could be exploited to combat ever-increasing amounts of waste. Houseflies can be controlled, at least to some extent, by physical, chemical, or biological means. Physical controls include screening with small mesh or the use of vertical strips of plastic or strings of beads in doorways to prevent entry of houseflies into buildings.

Fans to create air movement or air barriers in doorways can deter houseflies from entering, and food premises often use fly-killing devices ; sticky fly papers hanging from the ceiling are effective, [49] but electric " bug zappers " should not be used directly above food-handling areas because of scattering of contaminated insect parts. Keeping garbage in lidded containers and collecting it regularly and frequently, prevents any eggs laid from developing into adults.

Unhygienic rubbish tips are a prime housefly-breeding site, but if garbage is covered by a layer of soil, preferably daily, this can be avoided. Insecticides can be used. Larvicides kill the developing larvae, but large quantities may need to be used to reach areas below the surface. Aerosols can be used in buildings to "zap" houseflies, but outside applications are only temporarily effective. Residual sprays on walls or resting sites have a longer-lasting effect. Several means of biological pest control have been investigated.

These include the introduction of another species, the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens , whose larvae compete with those of the housefly for resources. The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila , have made them useful as model organism for use in laboratories. The American entomologist Vincent Dethier , in his humorous To Know A Fly , pointed out that as a laboratory animal, houseflies did not trouble anyone sensitive to animal cruelty. Houseflies have a small number of chromosomes, haploid 6 or diploid It has been suggested that birds may have a role in the dispersal of parthenogenetic stick insect species, especially to islands.

The Phasmatodea life cycle is hemimetabolous , proceeding through a series of several nymphal instars. Once emerged, a nymph will eat its cast skin. Adulthood is reached for most species after several months and many molts. The lifespan of Phasmatodea varies by species, but ranges from a few months to up to three years. Phasmids are herbivorous, feeding mostly on the leaves of trees and shrubs, and a conspicuous component of many neotropical South American systems.

Phasmatodea has been postulated as dominant light-gap herbivores there. Their role in the forest ecosystem is considered important by many scientists, who stress the significance of light gaps in maintaining succession and resilience in climax forests. The presence of phasmids lowers the net production of early successional plants by consuming them and then enriches the soil by defecation. This enables the late succession plants to become established and encourages the recycling of the tropical forest.

Phasmatodea are recognized as injurious to forest and shade trees by defoliation. Didymuria violescens , Podacanthus wilkinsoni and Ctenomorphodes tessulatus in Australia, Diapheromera femorata in North America and Graeffea crouani in coconut plantations in the South Pacific all occur in outbreaks of economic importance. Severe outbreaks of the walking stick, Diapheromera femorata , have occurred in the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas and Oklahoma. The insects eat the entire leaf blade. In the event of heavy outbreaks, entire stands of trees can be completely denuded. Because these species cannot fly, infestations are typically contained to a radius of a few hundred yards.

Nevertheless, the damage incurred to parks in the region is often costly. Control efforts in the case of infestations have typically involved chemical pesticides ; ground fires are effective at killing eggs but have obvious disadvantages. The classification of the Phasmatodea is complex and the relationships between its members are poorly understood. Phasmida is preferred by many authors, though it is incorrectly formed ; [ citation needed ] Phasmatodea is correctly formed, and is widely accepted.

The order Phasmatodea is sometimes considered to be related to other orders, including the Blattodea , Mantodea , Notoptera and Dermaptera , but the affiliations are uncertain and the grouping sometimes referred to as "Orthopteroidea" may be paraphyletic not have a common ancestor and hence invalid in the traditional circumscription set of attributes that all members have. Phasmatodea, once considered a suborder of Orthoptera , is now treated as an order of its own.

One is the instance among all species of Phasmatodea of a pair of exocrine glands inside the prothorax used for defense. Another is the presence of a specially formed sclerite hardened plate , called a vomer, which allows the male to clasp the female during mating. The order is divided into two, or sometimes three, suborders. However the phylogenetic evolutionary relationships between the different groups is poorly resolved. The monophyly of Anareolatae has been questioned and the morphology of the eggs may be a better basis for classification.

Phasmatodea fossils are rare, whether as adults or as eggs; isolated wings are the parts most commonly found. The modern group is monophyletic. Several Mesozoic families appear to be related to the phasmids, and are generally but not universally agreed to be stem group stick insects. One species is known as a forewing from the productive Crato Formation fossil beds of Brazil, Cretophasma araripensis Aerophasmatidae.

According to the authors, the discovery of E. The earliest leaf insect Phylliinae fossil is Eophyllium messelensis from the million-year-old Eocene of Messel, Germany. In size and cryptic leaflike body form, it closely resembles extant species, suggesting that the behavior of the group has changed little since that time. One Australian species, the Lord Howe Island stick insect , is now listed as critically endangered. It was believed extinct until its rediscovery on the rock known as Ball's Pyramid. The best known of the stick insects is the Indian or laboratory stick insect Carausius morosus. This insect grows to roughly 10 cm 4 in and reproduces parthenogenically , and although males have been recorded, they are rare.

Fossils of the extinct genus and species Eoprephasma hichensi have been recovered from Ypresian age sediments in the U. The species is one of the youngest members of the stem phasmatodean group Susumanioidea. In Europe there are 17 species of stick insects described, belonging to the genera Bacillus Clonopsis , Leptynia and Pijnackeria. There are also a few other species that live in Europe but are introduced, as for example with a couple of species of Acanthoxyla , which are native to New Zealand but are present in southern England. In the Iberian Peninsula there are currently described 13 species and several subspecies.

Their life cycle is annual, living only during the hottest months especially genera Leptynia and Pijnackeria , which usually means late spring to early autumn. Phyllium sp. Ctenomorpha marginipennis. Leptynia hispanica. Stick insects, like praying mantises , show rocking behavior in which the insect makes rhythmic, repetitive, side-to-side movements. The common interpretation of this behavior's function is it enhances crypsis by mimicking vegetation moving in the wind. These movements may also be important in allowing the insects to discriminate objects from the background by relative motion. Rocking movements by these generally sedentary insects may replace flying or running as a source of relative motion to help them discern objects in the foreground.

Mating behavior in Phasmatodea is impressive because of the extraordinarily long duration of some pairings. A record among insects, the stick insect Necroscia sparaxes , found in India, is sometimes coupled for 79 days at a time. It is not uncommon for this species to assume the mating posture for days or weeks on end, and among some species Diapheromera veliei and D. Overt displays of aggression between males over mates suggests that extended pairing may have evolved to guard females from sperm competition. Fighting between competing males has been observed in the species D. Occasionally, the consort will strike out at the competitor with the mid femora, which are equipped with an enlarged and hooked spine in both sexes that can draw the blood of the opponent when they are flexed against the body to puncture the integument.

While the first mate is engaged in feeding and is forced to vacate the dorsal position, the intruder can clasp the female's abdomen and insert his genitalia. If he is discovered, the males will enter into combat wherein they lean backward, both clasped to the female's abdomen, and freely suspended, engage in rapid, sweeping blows with their forelegs in a manner similar to boxing. Usually, when the intruder gains attachment to the female's abdomen, these conflicts result in the displacement of the original mate.

Lengthy pairings have also been described in terms of a defensive alliance. When cleaved together, the pair is more unwieldy for predators to handle. Also, the chemical defenses secretions, reflex bleeding, regurgitation of the individual stick insect are enhanced when two are paired. Females survive attacks by predators significantly better when pairing, largely because the dorsal position of the male functions well as a shield. This could indicate that manipulation by females is taking place: if females accept ejaculate at a slow rate, for instance, the males are forced to remain in copulo for longer and the female's chances of survival are enhanced.

Also, evolution could have simply favored males that remained attached to their females longer, since females are often less abundant than males and represent a valuable prize, so for the lucky male, even the sacrifice of his own life to preserve his offspring with the female may be worthwhile. Sexual dimorphism in the species, where females are usually significantly larger than the males, may have evolved due to the fitness advantage accrued to males that can remain attached to the female, thereby blocking competitors, without severely impeding her movement.

Certain Phasmatodea, such as Anisomorpha buprestoides , sometimes form aggregations. These insects have been observed to congregate during the day in a concealed location, going their separate ways at nightfall to forage, and returning to their refuge before dawn. Such behavior has been little studied, and how the insects find their way back is unknown. Stick insects are often kept in captivity: almost species have been reared in laboratories or as pets. The botanical illustrator Marianne North — painted leaf and stick insects that she saw on her travels in the s.

Tribesmen in Sarawak eat phasmids and their eggs. Some indigenous people of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands have traditionally made fishhooks from the legs of certain phasmids. Research has been conducted to analyze the stick insect method of walking and apply this to the engineering of six-legged walking robots. Instead of one centralized control system , it seems each leg of a phasmid operates independently. In Australia and Hawaii many kinds of stick insects are kept as exotic pets including the Strong, Goliath , Spiny and Children's.

Stick insects have been kept as pets since the time of the Han dynasty. They were kept inside birdcages and people in the Far East believe they bring good luck and fortune , just like crickets. In July , a video clip of a stick insect swaying on Twitter in May went viral as a "bait-and-switch" meme , in which an irrelevant video would unexpectedly transit to the clip with the caption "Get stick bugged LOL.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Order of stick and leaf insects. It is not to be confused with Stick grasshopper , Stick mantis , or Water stick insect. Further information: Antipredator adaptations , Camouflage , and Deimatic behaviour. Clonopsis gallica. Play media. Nomina circumscribentia insectorum. Retrieved 21 June Picture library. Natural History Museum. Archived from the original on 5 March

It sees you coming in slow motion". Jack interrupts to Why Did Rome Build The Colosseum of the imposition of rules, and he Montresors Incidents: A Short Story excitedly explaining the Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies that will result from breaking them. FanniidaeScathophagidaeAnthomyiidae. Houseflies sometimes carry phoretic nonparasitic passengers, including mites such Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies Macrocheles muscaedomesticae [34] Metaphors In Dr. Martin Luther Kings I Have A Dream Speech the pseudoscorpion Lamprochernes chyzeri. Although Jack Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies dismisses the idea of a beast on the island, he comes to accept Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies idea when they conceive Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies the beast Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies an enemy that Human Behavior In Lord Of The Flies hunters may kill.