➊ Abbie Character Analysis: A Lantern In Her Hand
Abbie, not hearing Eben, then announces, "I—killed coca cola organisational structure Eben. The farm, fertility, and ownership all become one to him, but when Ephraim taunts him by saying that the farm will go to Abbie or "his" son, Eben wishes the child dead, Inhumanity In The Kite Runner against Abbie in hatred. Abbie Character Analysis: A Lantern In Her Hand is castor oil. Or death? Theme Wheel.
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Simeon is thirty-nine years old, heavily built, fleshy, and "bovine" in countenance. Like Peter, Simeon has worked resentfully on his father's farm all his life and cannot wait to leave it. His character, however, is not as hard as Peter's. When Simeon sees a golden sunset he recalls his wife Jenn, dead for the past eighteen years: "She'd hair long's a hoss's tail—and yaller like gold. Nonetheless, he identifies with the "number one prize stock" that he and his brother have helped raise.
Significantly, it is Simeon who announces the theme of escape from prison when he speaks of the walls "crumblin' and tumblin! Also like Peter, he foreshadows the Dionysiac satyr-performance of Ephraim at the celebration for the birth of Abbie Putnam Cabot's son. As a last act of defiance, Simeon joins Peter in heaving rocks through the parlor window. Peter is thirty-seven years old, heavily built, fleshy, and "bovine" in countenance. He has worked resentfully on his father's farm all his life and cannot wait to leave.
Although he has some sensitivity to the beauty of the sunset, it reminds him of "gold in the sky—in the West—Golden Gate—Californi-a! Goldest West! He is a trifle more practical and less sensitive than Simeon but he too has some regrets about leaving the farm—for the "number one prize stock" that he and his brother have raised. He hates his father and, like his brother, possesses some symbolic significance as a character. An unwilling follower of the Protestant ethic, Peter is a son who must revolt against patriarchal tyranny, the Puritan wrathful God of the Old Testament, or the Nietzschean Apollonian God. As he leaves he becomes the ecstatic, intoxicated follower of the "easy" God his father forsook; and in his departing song and dance he, with his brother, foreshadows the boasting, drunk-en, Dionysiac satyr-dance performed by Ephraim Cabot at the celebration for the birth of Abbie Putnam Cabot's son.
As a departing act, Peter and Simeon heave rocks through the parlor window. He is seventy-five years old, "gaunt, with great wiry power, but stoop- shouldered from toil. Ephraim is the archetypal New England Puritan, the believer in hard work as a means to glorification, the man who thinks himself to have a pipeline to the deity and actually hears God speaking to him. His God is an angry god, one of toil and punishment, not one of consolation, and as a result, Ephraim's life has become one of great loneliness.
However, the "weakness" in his face indicates his occasional "lapses" from this harsh creed. Once he went away from his rock-riddled farm, following others from the locality to the Middle West where he found the land so rich that one merely had to plant the crops and sit back until they grew. But this ease distressed him, and finally he heard God speaking to him to say that this is not what He wanted. Cabot believes that God, in fact, ordered him back to the farm, where he built his stone walls and forced the earth into fertility.
Ephraim has also married three times. First to a woman like himself, a hard worker, who bore Simeon and Peter. Second, to Eben's mother, a softer person, but whose parents had some claim to the farm; she died, like her predecessor, worked to death by Eben's driving destiny. The third marriage, that to Abbie Putnam, a much younger women, is a curious response to the stirrings of nature within Ephraim in a spring some twenty-five years after his second wife's death. This indicates not so much a "lapse" from service to the severe God of Puritanism, but rather an instinctive unity with the very farm itself. As he himself recognizes, Ephraim has become in effect the rock-strewn, hardscrabble farm, both in its difficulty and its fertility.
For this reason, he identifies with both the land and its livestock. In fact, the only place where he really finds comfort is sleeping in the barn with the cows. He wants to have a suitable son to whom he can leave the farm, but none of his boys seems right. Each is a rebel against the hardness of the father, though their responses are different. After years of slavery to the old man, the older boys decide to follow the demands of the "easy" God and go to California for gold. Nonetheless, they are so identified with the farm by their very "bovine" appearance that they regret leaving it.
Significantly, they relate to the "fustrate, number one prize stock" they have bred, not to the imprisoning stone walls they have built to make the land fertile. Eben, despite his alleged "softness," is the closest to the old man in his desire to own the farm, in his vengefulness, and finally in his acceptance of punishment from the "hard" God. He is the Oedipal father whom, in Freudian psychological theory, the son seeks to destroy and supplant in his mother's bed. He is also briefly a participant in an almost Dionysian revel when he capers like a satyr at the celebration of the birth of Abbie's child by Eben. He then becomes the personification of the punishing God when he hears of the murder of the child, but in momentary despair thinks of renouncing his harsh God, following his "easy" one to California, and destroying the results of his service to the harsh God of Puritanism or, in the Nietzschean terms, the Apollonian God.
For this reason, he will turn the livestock loose and burn everything, but by the end of the play, the hardness has won and Ephraim's life on the farm will continue. He is hounded by his own destiny and must pay for even his minor attempts to escape. In this manner, Ephraim becomes a mythic figure, a combination of the forces of New England Puritanism, Greek myth, Freudian psychology, and Nietzschean theory; in addition, he is emblematic of Nature herself, which cannot be denied. He should not be taken literally, though such a reading is possible, but symbolically, against the background of these varied sources.
The key to his character is the long monologue in Part II, Scene ii, in which his dialect reaches a level of poetic eloquence that O'Neill does not always manage. Here, too, the excellent use of Biblical quotation when lyricism is beyond Ephraim's personal vocabulary is both totally in character and indeed inspired. But one must not forget the ineffable loneliness of the man, which must also arouse pity, as well as terror for the fate which engulfs him. In his own way, he has sought love and wants to love.
He is sensitive to the loneliness and the coldness he finds within his house and among other people. His farewell words to Abbie indicate these qualities: "Ye'd ought t'loved me. I'm a man. If ye'd loved me, I'd never told no Sheriff on ye no matter what ye did, if they was t'brile me alive. The Sheriff's concluding remark contains tremendous irony: "It's a jim-dandy farm, no denyin'.
Wished I owned it! Abbie is the thirty-five-year-old third wife of the seventy-six-year-old Ephraim. She is a buxom, good-looking woman whose face is marred by an obstinate chin and a "gross sensuality. She had a hard life until Ephraim came along. Yet she has no love for him, only a desire to find a place where she can belong, and in fact she has a physical aversion to her husband. When Abbie arrives at the farm, she is attracted by Eben's youthful good looks and uses her most seductive tone to gain his acceptance of her as his mother.
Eben, however, sees her as a conniving interloper, a harlot who sold herself for the farm. Two months later, on a hot afternoon, Abbie accosts Eben. Clearly their physical attraction is almost unbearable, and she takes advantage of the situation. She herself is a ripe woman who responds to the stirrings of nature, and indeed finds herself one with it. Eben fights against her, arousing her jealousy. However, as Abbie had predicted, nature proves too strong for Eben. Even though he repulses her once more, she finally persuades him to court her in the best parlor, the room in which his mother's funeral wake had taken place. When the two of them consummate their love in that room, it becomes theirs, and the restless spirit of Eben's mother vanishes.
Here the myth of Phaedra and Hyppolytus is relived in the union of the two, together with the inclusion of the Oedipus situation by which Eben supplants his father. By the following year, a son is born to Abbie and Eben, as all the world well knows, except Ephraim. But the balance of the lovers' existence has been disturbed by the arrival of their child; Eben detests pretending that what is rightfully his belongs to his father just like the farm.
The farm, fertility, and ownership all become one to him, but when Ephraim taunts him by saying that the farm will go to Abbie or "his" son, Eben wishes the child dead, turning against Abbie in hatred. She, by now the slave of her destiny and physical desire, smothers the baby, in an attempt to regain Eben's love. Here again, O'Neill uses myth, this time that of Medea, who killed her own children because she had lost the love of Jason.
But, as Abbie herself later realizes, she should have killed the old man, because Eben is devastated by the discovery that Abbie has murdered his own flesh and blood. All she can do is attempt to make him understand her motivation—that she loves him, Eben, better than anything else in the world. She could bear anything, if only Eben would again say he loved her. When Eben returns, Abbie discovers with strange joy that he has come to claim participation in the crime and plans to share her punishment because of his love for her. As they depart from the farm in the custody of the Sheriff, they go toward a rising sun and into a new existence which will be made easier by love, a love that, like that expressed by Saint Paul, surpasses all other virtues.
The character of Abbie, then, must be taken on a symbolic, nonliteral level as well as a literal one. She is the modern embodiment of a series of mythic resonances, coming from Ancient Greece, through Old and New Testaments, American history, Sigmund Freud, and even Nietzsche, even though he saw women as little more than recreation for mankind. She is Phaedra attempting to seduce Hippolytus, Jocasta who loves her son as child and husband, Medea who murders her children, and the victim of a malevolent deity and hence unable to escape her destiny. It is this deeper level of meaning that makes this play an important contribution to the American theatre and makes the character of Abbie Putnam tragic, rather than merely weak or pathetic.
Synopsis by Margaret Loftus Ranald A tragedy in three parts and twelve scenes laid "in, and immediately outside of, the Cabot farmhouse in New England, in the year The house is in good condition but in need of paint. On either side of the house are two huge elms which bend down over the roof, appearing to protect and at the same time to subdue: "They brood oppressively over the house. They are like exhausted women resting their sagging breasts and hands and hair on its roof, and when it rains their tears trickle down monotonously and rot on the shingles. Part I, Scene i: Sunset on an early summer day. The air is still and the sky above the farmhouse is filled with color, but the house itself is in shadow.
Eben Cabot comes out on to the porch, looks down the road, mechanically swings a dinner bell, and then looks up appreciatively at the' sky. He is a tall, sinewy, twenty-five-year-old, with a handsome face marred by a "resentful and defensive expression. Simeon Cabot and Peter Cabot, Eben's half-brothers, come in from their work. Simeon is thirty-nine and Peter is thirty-seven. They are rather "bovine" men, bent somewhat from years of hard farm work, and as they move they jostle each other slightly "like two friendly oxen. They stop for a moment in front of the house and look at the sky.
Their faces soften and they begin a laconic conversation which repeats Eben's "purty! Now and then he recalls, "Makes it lonesome. She'd hair long's a hoss's tail— an' yaller like gold! He last left the farm thirty years ago to marry "Eben's maw. Again the three of them gaze at the sun, Eben remarking, "Sun's downin' purty," while Simeon and Peter together speak of "gold in the West. Part I, Scene ii: The color is fading, and with the coming of twilight the inside of the kitchen becomes visible.
The kitchen is clean and neat but thoroughly masculine in appearance. There is a ship's poster saying "California" on the rear wall center. Places have been laid for three, and Eben serves boiled potatoes and bacon together with "a loaf of bread and a crock of water. Eben considers himself his mother's son and has never forgotten the way Ephraim worked her to death. Simeon and Peter also remember her kindness, but they don't react quite like Eben. Peter, in fact, notes that Ephraim is slaving himself and his sons to death, On'y none o' us hain't died—yit. Eben then asks what is driving his brothers to California, suggesting that they'll never get there because they are waiting for their share of the farm, their two-thirds.
But he maintains that the farm really belonged to his mother: "Didn't he steal it from her? She's dead. It's my farm. I'll see t' it my Maw gits some rest an' sleep in her grave. He had felt the stirrings of spring, "an' now I'm ridin' out t' learn God's message t' me in the spring, like the prophets done. Eben asks why they had not prevented his departure and asserts that he is stronger than they. They are mildly amused by this and even more so when Eben announces that he is going up the road, and the brothers realize that it is to see the town prostitute, Min, whom each one of them had known, including Ephraim; "He was fust! We air his heirs in everything.
He enters their bedroom with a lighted candle, and the interior of the bedroom becomes visible, with its low sloping roof, the double bed in which Simeon and Peter are sleeping, and Eben's cot at the rear. With a combination of "silly grin and malicious scowl" Eben tells his news: Ephraim has married a woman of thirty-five. Variable frame rate, however, made sound unlistenable, and a new, strict standard of 24 fps was soon established. The switch to quiet incandescent illumination in turn required a switch to more expensive film stock. The sensitivity of the new panchromatic film delivered superior image tonal quality and gave directors the freedom to shoot scenes at lower light levels than was previously practical.
As David Bordwell describes, technological improvements continued at a swift pace: "Between and , [Western Electric and RCA] created directional microphones, increased the frequency range of film recording, reduced ground noise By , rerecording of vocals by the original or different actors in postproduction, a process known as "looping", had become practical. The ultraviolet recording system introduced by RCA in improved the reproduction of sibilants and high notes.
With Hollywood's wholesale adoption of the talkies, the competition between the two fundamental approaches to sound-film production was soon resolved. Over the course of —31, the only major players using sound-on-disc, Warner Bros. Vitaphone's dominating presence in sound-equipped theaters, however, meant that for years to come all of the Hollywood studios pressed and distributed sound-on-disc versions of their films alongside the sound-on-film prints. In May , Western Electric won an Austrian lawsuit that voided protection for certain Tri-Ergon patents, helping bring Tobis-Klangfilm to the negotiating table.
As a contemporary report describes:. All other countries, among them Italy, France, and England, are open to both parties. The agreement did not resolve all the patent disputes, and further negotiations were undertaken and concords signed over the course of the s. While the introduction of sound led to a boom in the motion picture industry, it had an adverse effect on the employability of a host of Hollywood actors of the time. Suddenly those without stage experience were regarded as suspect by the studios; as suggested above, those whose heavy accents or otherwise discordant voices had previously been concealed were particularly at risk. The career of major silent star Norma Talmadge effectively came to an end in this way.
The celebrated German actor Emil Jannings returned to Europe. Moviegoers found John Gilbert 's voice an awkward match with his swashbuckling persona, and his star also faded. The career of Harold Lloyd , one of the top screen comedians of the s, declined precipitously. However, the impact of sound on the careers of film actors should not be exaggerated. Studio heads, now forced into unprecedented decisions, decided to begin with the actors, the least palatable, the most vulnerable part of movie production.
It was such a splendid opportunity, anyhow, for breaking contracts, cutting salaries, and taming the stars Me, they gave the salary treatment. I could stay on without the raise my contract called for, or quit, [Paramount studio chief B. Questionable, I say, because I spoke decent English in a decent voice and came from the theater. So without hesitation I quit.
Buster Keaton was eager to explore the new medium, but when his studio, MGM, made the changeover to sound, he was quickly stripped of creative control. Though a number of Keaton's early talkies made impressive profits, they were artistically dismal. Several of the new medium's biggest attractions came from vaudeville and the musical theater, where performers such as Al Jolson , Eddie Cantor , Jeanette MacDonald , and the Marx Brothers were accustomed to the demands of both dialogue and song.
The new emphasis on speech also caused producers to hire many novelists, journalists, and playwrights with experience writing good dialogue. As talking pictures emerged, with their prerecorded musical tracks, an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work. Hubbard, "During the s live musical performances at first-run theaters became an exceedingly important aspect of the American cinema. The American Federation of Musicians took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices.
Canned Music on Trial This is the case of Art vs. Mechanical Music in theatres. The defendant stands accused in front of the American people of attempted corruption of musical appreciation and discouragement of musical education. Theatres in many cities are offering synchronised mechanical music as a substitute for Real Music. If the theatre-going public accepts this vitiation of its entertainment program a deplorable decline in the Art of Music is inevitable. Musical authorities know that the soul of the Art is lost in mechanization. It cannot be otherwise because the quality of music is dependent on the mood of the artist, upon the human contact, without which the essence of intellectual stimulation and emotional rapture is lost. By the following year, a reported 22, U.
In September , Jack L. Warner , head of Warner Bros. Sound film, in fact, was a clear boon to all the major players in the industry. Over sixty Hollywood musicals were released in , and more than eighty the following year. Even as the Wall Street crash of October helped plunge the United States and ultimately the global economy into depression , the popularity of the talkies at first seemed to keep Hollywood immune. The —30 exhibition season was even better for the motion picture industry than the previous, with ticket sales and overall profits hitting new highs. Reality finally struck later in , but sound had clearly secured Hollywood's position as one of the most important industrial fields, both commercially and culturally, in the United States.
In , film box-office receipts comprised The motion picture business would command similar figures for the next decade and a half. The American movie industry—already the world's most powerful—set an export record in that, by the applied measure of total feet of exposed film, was 27 percent higher than the year before. In fact, the expense of sound conversion was a major obstacle to many overseas producers, relatively undercapitalized by Hollywood standards.
The production of multiple versions of export-bound talkies in different languages known as " Foreign Language Version " , as well as the production of the cheaper " International Sound Version ", a common approach at first, largely ceased by mid, replaced by post- dubbing and subtitling. Despite trade restrictions imposed in most foreign markets, by , American films commanded about 70 percent of screen time around the globe.
Just as the leading Hollywood studios gained from sound in relation to their foreign competitors, they did the same at home. As historian Richard B. Jewell describes, "The sound revolution crushed many small film companies and producers who were unable to meet the financial demands of sound conversion. Historian Thomas Schatz describes the ancillary effects:. Because the studios were forced to streamline operations and rely on their own resources, their individual house styles and corporate personalities came into much sharper focus.
Thus the watershed period from the coming of sound into the early Depression saw the studio system finally coalesce, with the individual studios coming to terms with their own identities and their respective positions within the industry. The other country in which sound cinema had an immediate major commercial impact was India. As one distributor of the period said, "With the coming of the talkies, the Indian motion picture came into its own as a definite and distinctive piece of creation. This was achieved by music. While the European film industries fought an endless battle against the popularity and economic muscle of Hollywood, ten years after the debut of Alam Ara , over 90 percent of the films showing on Indian screens were made within the country.
Most of India's early talkies were shot in Bombay , which remains the leading production center, but sound filmmaking soon spread across the multilingual nation. In , Sati Sulochana , the first Kannada talking picture to be released, was shot in Kolhapur , Maharashtra ; Srinivasa Kalyanam became the first Tamil talkie actually shot in Tamil Nadu. Already by , the majority of feature productions were in sound; two years later, of the Indian feature films were talking pictures. In the first, edition of his global survey The Film Till Now , British cinema pundit Paul Rotha declared, "A film in which the speech and sound effects are perfectly synchronised and coincide with their visual image on the screen is absolutely contrary to the aims of cinema.
It is a degenerate and misguided attempt to destroy the real use of the film and cannot be accepted as coming within the true boundaries of the cinema. In the opinion of many film historians and aficionados, both at the time and subsequently, silent film had reached an aesthetic peak by the late s and the early years of sound cinema delivered little that was comparable to the best of the silents. The first year in which sound film production predominated over silent film—not only in the United States, but also in the West as a whole—was ; yet the years through are represented by three dialogueless pictures Pandora's Box , Zemlya , City Lights  and zero talkies in the Time Out poll. City Lights , like Sunrise , was released with a recorded score and sound effects, but is now customarily referred to by historians and industry professionals as a "silent"—spoken dialogue regarded as the crucial distinguishing factor between silent and sound dramatic cinema.
The other internationally acclaimed sound drama of the year was Westfront , directed by G. Pabst for Nero-Film of Berlin. Swiftly banned by Paris police chief Jean Chiappe , it was unavailable for fifty years. While some regarded sound as irreconcilable with film art, others saw it as opening a new field of creative opportunity. The following year, a group of Soviet filmmakers, including Sergei Eisenstein , proclaimed that the use of image and sound in juxtaposition, the so-called contrapuntal method, would raise the cinema to " Such a method for constructing the sound-film will not confine it to a national market, as must happen with the photographing of plays, but will give a greater possibility than ever before for the circulation throughout the world of a filmically expressed idea.
Hamilton writes, "Silent films offered people who were deaf a rare opportunity to participate in a public discourse, cinema, on equal terms with hearing people. The emergence of sound film effectively separated deaf from hearing audience members once again. On March 12, , the first feature-length talking picture made in Germany had its premiere. The inaugural Tobis Filmkunst production, it was not a drama, but a documentary sponsored by a shipping line: Melodie der Welt Melody of the World , directed by Walter Ruttmann. As described by scholar William Moritz, the movie is "intricate, dynamic, fast-paced To render the half-musical impressions of factory sounds in a complex audio world that moved from absolute music to the purely documentary noises of nature.
In this film every intermediate stage can be found: such as the movement of the machine interpreted by the music, the noises of the machine dominating the musical background, the music itself is the documentary, and those scenes where the pure sound of the machine goes solo. Many similar experiments were pursued by Dziga Vertov in his Entuziazm and by Chaplin in Modern Times , a half-decade later. A few innovative commercial directors immediately saw the ways in which sound could be employed as an integral part of cinematic storytelling, beyond the obvious function of recording speech.
In Blackmail , Hitchcock manipulated the reproduction of a character's monologue so the word "knife" would leap out from a blurry stream of sound, reflecting the subjective impression of the protagonist, who is desperate to conceal her involvement in a fatal stabbing. At a certain point, Mamoulian wanted the audience to hear one character singing at the same time as another prays; according to the director, "They said we couldn't record the two things—the song and the prayer—on one mike and one channel. So I said to the sound man, 'Why not use two mikes and two channels and combine the two tracks in printing?
Premiering in Paris in April and New York a month later, the picture was both a critical and popular success. A musical comedy with a barebones plot, it is memorable for its formal accomplishments, in particular, its emphatically artificial treatment of sound. As described by scholar Donald Crafton,. Le Million never lets us forget that the acoustic component is as much a construction as the whitewashed sets. Clair created teasing confusions between on- and off-screen sound. He also experimented with asynchronous audio tricks, as in the famous scene in which a chase after a coat is synched to the cheers of an invisible football or rugby crowd.
These and similar techniques became part of the vocabulary of the sound comedy film, though as special effects and "color", not as the basis for the kind of comprehensive, non- naturalistic design achieved by Clair. Outside of the comedic field, the sort of bold play with sound exemplified by Melodie der Welt and Le Million would be pursued very rarely in commercial production.
Hollywood, in particular, incorporated sound into a reliable system of genre -based moviemaking, in which the formal possibilities of the new medium were subordinated to the traditional goals of star affirmation and straightforward storytelling. As accurately predicted in by Frank Woods , secretary of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences , "The talking pictures of the future will follow the general line of treatment heretofore developed by the silent drama The talking scenes will require different handling, but the general construction of the story will be much the same. This system used an operator adjusted non-linkage form of primitive synchronization. In showing the films, synchronization of sorts was achieved by adjusting the hand cranked film projector's speed to match the phonograph.
Is Music Worth Saving? No great volume of evidence is required to answer this question. Music is a well-nigh universally beloved art. From the beginning of history, men have turned to musical expression to lighten the burdens of life, to make them happier. Aborigines, lowest in the scale of savagery, chant their song to tribal gods and play upon pipes and shark-skin drums. Musical development has kept pace with good taste and ethics throughout the ages, and has influenced the gentler nature of man more powerfully perhaps than any other factor. Has it remained for the Great Age of Science to snub the Art by setting up in its place a pale and feeble shadow of itself? From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Redirected from Talkies. Motion picture with synchronized sound. Further information: Kinetoscope. Koerber notes that after Messter acquired the Cinema Unter den Linden located in the back room of a restaurant , it reopened under his management on September 21, p. Dan Gilmore describes its predecessor technology in his essay "What's Louder than Loud? The Auxetophone" : "Was the Auxetophone loud? It was painfully loud. Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland. Archived from the original on July 7, Retrieved December 8, Film Sound Sweden.
See also A. Pertti Kuusela, E. Lanham, MD: Ardsley House. ISBN MSN in Spanish. Archived from the original on February 7, Retrieved February 6, ISSN July 28, Encyclopedia of Arkansas History and Culture. Retrieved December 7, There are claims that De Forest recorded a synchronized musical score for director Fritz Lang 's Siegfried when it arrived in the United States the year after its German debut—Geduld , p. There is no consensus, however, concerning when this recording took place or if the film was ever actually presented with synch-sound. For a possible occasion for such a recording, see the August 24, , New York Times review of Siegfried Archived April 5, , at the Wayback Machine , following its American premiere at New York City's Century Theater the night before, which describes the score's performance by a live orchestra.
Crafton misleadingly implies that Griffith's film had not previously been exhibited commercially before its sound-enhanced premiere. He also misidentifies Ralph Graves as Richard Grace p. March 24, Recording Technology History. History Department at the University of San Diego. Archived from the original on September 5, Retrieved December 11, October 6, Archived from the original on April 29, January 9, Archived from the original on May 22, See also Motion Picture Sound — Archived May 13, , at the Wayback Machine , perhaps the best online source for details on these developments, though here it fails to note that Fox's original deal for the Western Electric technology involved a sublicensing arrangement.
September Projection Engineering. Bryan Davis Publishing Co. November Retrieved August 6, — via InternetArchive. Geraldton Guardian and Express. I Western Australia. August 8, Retrieved August 6, — via National Library of Australia. National Film and Sound Archive of Australia. Retrieved August 6, The Daily News. August 30, The previous highest-grossing Warner Bros. Crafton's claim that The Jazz Singer "was in a distinct second or third tier of attractions compared to the most popular films of the day and even other Vitaphone talkies" p.
Although the movie was no match for the half-dozen biggest hits of the decade, the available evidence suggests that it was one of the three highest-earning films released in and that overall its performance was comparable to the other two, The King of Kings and Wings. It is undisputed that its total earnings were more than double those of the next four Vitaphone talkies; the first three of which, according to Glancy's analysis of in-house Warner Bros. AMPS Newsletter. Association of Motion Picture Sound. Archived from the original on October 22, Retrieved December 12, Note that Allen, like many, exaggerates The Jazz Singer ' s commercial success; it was a big hit, but not "one of the big box office hits of all time".
It implied that producers were trying to put some new life into their old films" pp. Murnau and Robert Flaherty 's Tabu Paramount. The last totally silent feature produced in the United States for general distribution was The Poor Millionaire , released by Biltmore Pictures in April Four other silent features, all low-budget Westerns, were also released in early Robertson , p. Saunders reports, it premiered the same month in Berlin, but as a silent. Weimar Cinema. Archived from the original on January 9, Deutsches Filminstitut. Archived from the original on June 24, The authentic BIP production Kitty is sometimes included among the candidates for "first British talkie.
The stars later came to New York to record dialogue, with which the film was rereleased in June , after much better credentialed candidates. See sources cited above. Details if other :. Thanks for telling us about the problem. Return to Book Page. It's ahead of me And when I read verse or hear music And years later, when her children, raised in a rude sod hut, were prosperous men and women of a thriving state, she could say proudly, "I've seen everything I've seen the feeble beginnings of a raw state and the civilization that developed there, and I've been part of the beginning and part of the growth.
But it's funny," she added, "I was always too busy filling up the youngsters and getting patches on the overalls to notice that I was part of the epic. The magnificent story of a young girl who went West as a bride -- and helped to build a nation. Get A Copy. Paperback , pages. Published April 1st by Puffin Books first published More Details Original Title. Deal Family 1. Nebraska United States. Other Editions Friend Reviews. To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about A Lantern in Her Hand , please sign up. This book showed up on my daughter's middle school, summer suggested reading list.
Is this an appropriate book for a nearly twelve year old girl? Alice I realize that I am a year out from your question. I do hope your daughter read this book. She didn't need to "appreciate" the last three quarters of …more I realize that I am a year out from your question. She didn't need to "appreciate" the last three quarters of the book. She only needed to connect to the people. After 56 years, this is still one of the most influencing and impression making book I read as a 12 year old and believe me, as an only child on a farm, I read a LOT!
Kaylee the novel is set in the late 's and early 's in a Nebraska territory …more the novel is set in the late 's and early 's in a Nebraska territory less. See all 6 questions about A Lantern in Her Hand…. Lists with This Book. Community Reviews. Showing Average rating 4. Rating details. More filters. Sort order. Start your review of A Lantern in Her Hand. Apr 14, Jennifer rated it it was amazing. This book was beautifully written! I loved it! It was a simple, yet tender story of a pioneer woman-Abbie Deal. It is a book full of wisdom and so much insight. It is a book about mothering, and grandmothering and people and living.
It made me reflect on myself, my own mother and grandma. It had so many wonderful quotes. Some of my favorite were: "Because the road was steep and long, And through a dark and lonely land, God set upon my lips a song And put a lantern in my hand. I feel broad. How can I explain it to you, so you would understand? I've seen everything I've been part of the beginning and part of the growth. I've married Is childbirth narrow, Grace? Or marriage? Or death? When you've experienced all those things, Grace, the spirit has traveled although the body has been confined. I think travel is a rare privilege and I'm glad you can have it.
But not every one who stays at home is narrow and not every one who travels is broad. I think if you can understand humanity Only it goes with you all your life. I think that love is more like a light that you carry. At first childish happiness keeps it lighted and after that romance. Then motherhood lights it and then duty You wouldn't think that sorrow could be a light would you, dearie? But it can. And then after that, service lights it. I think that is what love is to a woman I just loved this book-simply lovely! There was so much to gain from this book-it made me want to be a better person. This is why it gets 5 stars. View all 7 comments. Oct 17, Diane Barnes rated it it was amazing Shelves: favorites.
This has been another of my beloved pioneer books. Recommended to me by Teresa, and egged on by Howard's review, I finally picked it up to read. An outwardly simple story of the settling and progress of Nebraska from , we see it all through the eyes of Abby Deal. Arriving in a covered wagon with her husband and baby boy, we are with her every step of the way. Droughts and fires and locusts, poor crops and bad years, the births of 5 more children, the struggle to raise them on next to not This has been another of my beloved pioneer books. Droughts and fires and locusts, poor crops and bad years, the births of 5 more children, the struggle to raise them on next to nothing, and deaths of loved ones along the way.
Even with all the hard work and bad times, Abby had her dreams. First for herself, then for her children. Sacrifices are a natural part of parenthood, but even so, the dreams remain. There were several times in the reading of this that I was in tears, as sometimes fiction can make you realize your own reality. It gave me a greater understanding of what my own 91 year old mother had dealt with in her past, because even mothers were young and pretty once, before age does what it does.
Abby Deal portrays all women at some point in their lives, keeping on keeping on when everything seems lost, maintaining that fighting spirit against all that would hold her back, dealing with children and neighbors and history itself with compassion and charity. A truly enjoyable read. Thank you Teresa. Thank you Howard. Both of you were right about this one. View all 28 comments. Sep 28, Howard rated it it was amazing Recommended to Howard by: Teresa. Shelves: american-west , great-plains , fiction , american-history , nebraska , family , reviewed , tall-woman. Because the road was steep and long, And through a dark and lonely land, God set upon my lips a song And put a lantern in my hand.
Senate, in which one party had already made up its collective mind that Because the road was steep and long, And through a dark and lonely land, God set upon my lips a song And put a lantern in my hand. So much for deliberation. She and her family, headed by her widowed mother, are migrating from Illinois to Iowa. After the Civil War, Abbie marries Will Deal, and they soon move to Nebraska, and it is there that most of the story takes place. Pioneer life was hard on men, but it was so much more difficult for women, and as a result it is a theme in many pioneer novels, including classics such as O.
The one constant factor in their favor was the rich, fertile, black soil; but at times that was not enough. Nature in that part of the world is not always an ally. There are weeks when drifting snow and sullen sleet hold the Cedartown community in their bitter grasp. There are times when hot winds come out of the southwest and parch it with their feverish breath. There are monotonous droughts and periods of heavy rain; but between these onslaughts there are days so perfect, so filled with clover odors and rich, pungent smell of newly turned loam, so sumac-laden and apple-burdened, that to the prairie-born there are not others as lovely by mountain or lake or sea.
And there were harsh times when Abbie could not overcome her despair. One of the very worst episodes occurred while she was expecting her fourth child when a plague of grasshoppers stripped the grain in the fields and destroyed the vegetables in the garden. You ought to help! No, the life that these settlers lived was a hard one that they could not escape, but it also could be a rewarding one. And so the depression that descended on Abbie after the family was devastated by the loss of their crop and their garden did not last.
Sometimes she said she was afraid she had forgotten how to care for one. But when she grew strong, it all came back to her. The Abbie Deals do not forget. To date, I have thirty-two books, both fiction and nonfiction, on that shelf, though I may have overlooked a few when I went back looking for those that I had read prior to creating the shelf. The fictional Abbie Deal, of course, belongs on that shelf, but so does her creator. It was there that Aldrich first began to write when she could find some time in between caring for her growing family and her housework.
Her first book, a short story collection, was published in In , her husband died as a result of a stroke, leaving Bess Aldrich with four children, the youngest four-years old and the oldest sixteen-years old. But from that point on, it was her writing that financially supported her family. She eventually published nearly short stories and magazine articles, nine novels, one novella, and two short story collections. She became a popular writer and one of the highest paid magazine writers of her time.
And it was her writing that made it possible for her four children to obtain college degrees. View all 22 comments. Feb 07, Lucy rated it liked it. Originally published in , Beth Streeter Aldrich uses this novel to create a fantastic female character, Abbie Deal. Abbie's story begins in , when she is eight years old and at the start of a three week journey, traveling with her family by wagon from Illinois to Iowa. The fact that I grew up listening to pioneer stories from this era made her voyage very vivid in my mind.
I could see the sacks of flour falling out of the wagon and floating in the river and the oxen slowly pulling all th Originally published in , Beth Streeter Aldrich uses this novel to create a fantastic female character, Abbie Deal. I could see the sacks of flour falling out of the wagon and floating in the river and the oxen slowly pulling all the families' possessions along a bumpy buffalo trail. The story ends in with Abbie's death at the age of The face of America changed dramatically between those years, and Abbie's life changed alongside it. Part pioneer story, part pride of Nebraska lesson, part farming tutorial, part commentary about marriage - Aldrich ultimately uses Abbie Deal to explain the choices and sacrifices that faced a 19th century woman, or more specifically, a mother.
Perhaps Abbie Deal's selfless mothering is the source of my distress. I've always felt I've lacked in this arena and while I've tried really hard not to compare myself to my friends' and siblings' styles of mothering, I found myself forlorn with the realization that I was no Abbie Deal. Abbie was a natural mother. She postponed her dreams of becoming a singer and learning how to paint the prairie's sunset to follow her husband, Will, to Nebraska at the end of the Civil War. Originally, she postponed these dreams for the sake of her husband, who needed to carve his own way in life away from his father. Later she postponed them because there was no money or opportunity and every ounce of her energy went into building their home and farm and caring for her young children.
Later yet, she postponed them because her children grew and had dreams of their own that required any extra time or money she had saved. Finally, she abandoned them altogether because her talents had left her. Her voice had faded from non-use and her fingers were gnarled and knobby from years of work. In the end, all she was left with was her good name and the pride she had in her children's accomplishments. Thus started the deep, stabbing pain in my chest. This kind of story, really Abbie gave up everything of her own The feminist in me resists The mother in me, however, wipes away a tear as I watch life from back stage instead of front and center, but wholly gets that my family is THE point.
I get to clap and cheer and know that my efforts made this grand production possible. Throughout the book, Abbie does women a great service by allowing herself to wonder "what if". What if she had married that other boy who wanted her but who she didn't quite love, the one whose wife now wears all those fine clothes? What if she and Will hadn't moved to Nebraska and avoided suffering through drought and grasshoppers and blizzards? What if she had kept at her singing What if, what if, what if?
What if I had? What then? Is the prize for the correct choice happiness? The fun in discussing this book would be hearing the strong arguments that defend both ends of the spectrum, and all the shades in between. Today, we lucky women choose the shade that fits us best. Do we like how we look? Abbie Deal chose motherhood but the story did not romanticize her choice. Abbie's story included every distracted husband, every sick child, every annoying friend and every moody child. And yet, in the end, Abbie sat as an old woman and felt satisfied that her five children were a fine product of a life's work. I recommend this book to every woman out there who enjoys tales of pioneer life or more importantly, empathizes with the difficult decisions made by women everywhere View all 3 comments.
Oct 10, Courtney Clark rated it it was amazing Shelves: I'm not a fan of pioneer books. That independant pioneer bravery is foreign to me, a lover of safety and comfort. Waxing romantic on endlessly waving fields just baffling to this devoted mountain girl. But this is a book on motherhood, at heart, one of the most universal topics of all time. And I've never experienced a more poignant description of the endless pouring, pouring, pouring of self that motherhood has been for me. A Lantern in Her Hand came to me at, perhaps, the best possible time. With a 1, 3, and 6 yr old, newly called to both homeschooling and fostering, I was in a place yelling to God, "When do I get to live MY life!
Must I give everything to these children? Now my kids are older, and doubled in number. My friends all going back to school, or pursuing their dreams. And I'm still here. Still pouring. Accepting that there won't be an end.How Abbie Character Analysis: A Lantern In Her Hand you be sad at the death of one, who lived such a Rat Saw God Reflection life? I do hope your daughter read this book. Ephraim, at the gate, feels somehow lonesome, Abbie Character Analysis: A Lantern In Her Hand himself uncomfortable in the house.