⚡ Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper
Austin, Algernon. Mansharamani M, Chilton BS. Table 9 shows the employment rate estimates for prime-working-age individuals living Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper or near The Ones Who Walk Away From Omelas Comparison reservation Homosexuality reported Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper enrollment. Under Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper conditions, trees sometimes attain a height of 43 m ft and a d. Brain How to get good grades.
Remember the Dakota 38 + 2
Basswood grows best on mesic sites, but it is also found on coarse soils such as the sand dunes near Lake Michigan 17 and on dry, exposed rock ridges in Ontario and Quebec The species grows on soils ranging in pH from 4. In fact, calcareous soils have been associated with the presence of basswood 9, The importance of aspect and edaphic factors to local distribution is reflected by the restriction of basswood throughout much of its range to moist sites on north- and east-facing slopes.
Maple-basswood forests in southern Wisconsin are largely restricted to northerly exposures Basswood is restricted to more mesic sites in southern Illinois and in northern Kentucky 5. At the western limit of its range, basswood frequently grows on the eastern side of lakes and along major drainages. This localized growth is often ascribed to fire protection. Although lack of fire may be a reason for the persistence of a fire-sensitive species such as basswood, presence and distribution are controlled more by soil moisture and the ameliorating effects of water on the local climate. Basswood is classified as a nitrogen-demanding species because it grows poorly on sites deficient in nitrogen. Basswood leaves have high contents of nitrogen, calcium, magnesium, and potassium at the time of leaf fall and they contribute most of these nutrients to the forest floor 13, American basswood grows in mixture with other species and only rarely forms pure stands.
This cover type is most common in central Minnesota and western Wisconsin but is represented elsewhere from central Illinois, northward to southern Ontario and Quebec, eastward to northwestern Ohio, and westward along valley slopes of the prairie-forest transition Sugar maple Acer saccharum dominates both overstory and understory layers, with basswood achieving the position of second dominant in the tree layer. Common associates are white ash Fraxinus americana , northern red oak Quercus rubra , eastern hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana , red maple Acer rubrum , and American elm Ulmus americana. Although not a dominant species, basswood is also found in the following forest cover types:. Basswood is one of the major species, with sugar maple, beech Fagus , ash Fraxinus , hickory Carya , and oak Quercus , in the Deciduous Forest Region of southern Ontario.
It is a minor component of the sugar maple-yellow birch-hemlock-white pine climax forest type in the southern districts of the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence regions of Ontario The genotypic distinction between these species is not always clear, and T. Flowering and Fruiting- The fragrant, yellow-white, perfect flowers are borne on loose cymes on long stalks attached to leafy bracts. Flowering generally occurs in June but can begin in late May or early July, depending on latitude and annual variations in temperature.
Flowering follows initial leaf-out and lasts approximately 2 weeks. During this period, all stages of floral development are present on a single tree or even in a single inflorescence 4 to 40 flowers per inflorescence. The flowers attract a number of insect pollinators. In a study of the pollination biology, 66 species of insects from 29 families were identified as pollinators of Tilia flowers. Bees and flies were the most common diurnal pollinators; moths were the primary nocturnal visitors 2. The fruit, a nutlike drupe 5 to 10 mm 0. The seeds have a crustaceous seed coat testa , a fleshy yellowish endosperm, and a well-developed embryo. A variety of forms of fruit and seed have been noted, including egg-shaped, round, onion-shaped, conical, and pentagonal Individual trees tend to consistently produce fruit of a particular form and size.
Seed Production and Dissemination- Fruits ripen in September and October and are soon dispersed by such mechanisms as wind, gravity, and animals. Although the flower bracts are reported to aid in wind dispersal, fruits rarely are carried more than one or two tree lengths from the parent In addition to their limited role in seed dispersal, bracts may act as "flags" to attract pollinators especially nocturnal ones to the inflorescences 2. Animals probably increase the seed dispersal significantly. The seed-bearing age for basswood generally ranges from 15 to years, but seed production at age 8 years 10 years from seed has been noted Based on a number of collections, seed weights varied from 12 to 38 mg 0.
In a study for 26 years of 19 species in northern Wisconsin, basswood was one of the most consistent fall-maturing seed producers It produced good seed crops 62 percent of the time from to When crown-released, basswood that were about 50 years old did not increase their fruit production during the 5-year period following release. Moreover, the quality of fruit remained poor throughout this period. In the third year after release, for example, only 5 percent of the fruit collected from the ground contained sound seed The production of fruit without seed parthenocarpy and seed infestation by a lepidopterous larva are two common defects that affect seed viability.
A pin hole in the pericarp indicates the presence of the larvae. The percentage of fruits with the pin hole was 3 percent in a September collection and 7 percent for an October collection in southeastern Ontario 35 ; 30 percent of fruits were insect infested in 45 collections from various parts of the natural range of basswood 4. In the same collections, the percentage of fruits with seed ranged from 0 to nearly , but the lack of sound seed on the forest floor seems to be the rule.
Only 2 percent were sound out of more than 7, identifiable basswood seeds found in the litter in a northern Wisconsin stand. Seeds covered by leaves had rotted and most of the seeds lying on or in the upper litter layers had been destroyed by rodents Seedling Development- Basswood seeds show a pronounced dormancy and generally germinate poorly regardless of seedbed conditions. The primary cause for the lack of quick germination is an impermeable testa. Using organic acids to digest the pericarps of the fruits and to render the testas permeable improves germination Germination is epigeal. Early harvesting followed by immediate sowing has also been suggested for overcoming dormancy of basswood seeds. Collections should be made when seed coats turn brown but before they become dry and hard, or more specifically, when the moisture content is 20 to 40 percent of the green weight 7, Shading aids the establishment and initial survival of basswood seedlings but heavy shade limits subsequent growth and development, and vigorous growth is unlikely under the forest canopy.
Likewise, higher soil temperatures found in forest openings are suitable for greatest growth of basswood seedlings 3. Basswood seedlings first develop a long taproot, which is soon supplemented by lateral roots. First-year seedlings had a root penetration of Stem height was 5. Cold storage of autumn-lifted basswood seedlings maintains root growth capacity and overall seedling vigor for spring planting. Basswood has been successfully planted in Ontario on cutover land and abandoned farmland. On cutover land, survival was best when a light overhead canopy 8.
Release of the seedlings from the residual overstory and undergrowth was recommended after three growing seasons. Fall plantings failed to survive. Early failures of hardwoods planted on old-field sites in Ontario have been attributed to the absence of mycorrhizal fungi 30 , insufficient site preparation, and insufficient postplanting weed control 42, Fertilization at the time of planting had little effect on seedling survival or growth Vegetative Reproduction- Basswood sprouts prolifically, and this vegetative regeneration can be managed for sawtimber. Sprouts commonly originate on the stump at the ground line, and vigorous sprouts occur over a wide range of diameter classes Almost all trees 10 cm 4 in in diameter and smaller will produce sprouts and more than half of sawlog-size trees can be expected to produce stump sprouts However, early thinning of stump sprouts preferably before they reach 5 cm 2 in d.
Clumps should be thinned to not more than two stems; such thinnings will reduce the incidence of stem degrade due to decay, seams, and sweep 23, Because an extensive root system already exists, a basswood sprout has a higher probability of replacing a parent stem than does a sugar maple seedling. This rate is relatively close to the white national average rate of The Cherokee These rates are considerably higher than the overall reservation employment rate of The three tribes with the lowest employment rates are all in Arizona: the Pima These rates are much lower than the average for the subsample.
They also indicate that less than half of the prime-age population in these tribes is working. A tribe can have a high or low employment rate due to something unmeasured about the tribe or because of some other factor correlated with membership in the tribe. For example, the average age of a particular tribe may be higher than that of other tribes. Also, the educational distribution of tribes may differ.
Tribes with higher levels of education would be expected to have higher employment rates. The multivariate analysis allows us to take age, education, and other factors into account to see if there is any additional effect due to tribal membership. Table 10 presents the percent increase or decrease in the odds of employment for each tribe, relative to Navajo membership. The Navajo were chosen as the reference group simply because they are the largest. Tribes for which there is no statistically significant change in odds are shown as having a 0 percent change.
After controlling for other factors, members of the Tlingit-Haida tribe continue to have the highest odds of employment. The effect is 86 percent greater than membership in the Navajo tribe. Membership in the Aleut, Cherokee, and Choctaw tribes also has strong positive effects on the odds of employment relative to the Navajo tribe. These tribes potentially have lessons that could be shared to help improve the employment rates of American Indians generally. Odds control for gender, age, marital status, number of children, veteran status, disability, facility with English, educational attainment, and urbanicity.
Tribes where the change in likelihood is not statistically significant are indicated as having a 0 percent change. It is clear that Native Americans suffer from a deep employment crisis. Nationally, their employment rate is extremely low. While there are many Native American communities by state or by tribe that are faring even worse than average, many are also doing better than average. In this part of the paper, we make recommendations based on what lessons can be learned from the prior data analysis and from some of the research on economic development for Native Americans and other groups.
American Indians and Alaska Natives have access to substantial natural resources. Reservations contain millions of acres of commercial timber, important plant and animal life, and vast mineral resources National Congress of American Indians b. A number of current policies, however, prevent tribes from being able to develop these natural resources as would a state or local government National Congress of American Indians b. The federal trust management system needs to be reformed to allow tribes greater ability to use their natural resources for economic development National Native American Economic Policy Summit , 7—8. More generally, researchers Stephen Cornell and Joseph P.
Kalt found that strong and culturally appropriate tribal leadership is associated with higher employment rates. In their analysis, tribes governed by a chief executive or a legislature, typically a parliamentary tribal council, had better employment outcomes than tribes governed by a general council. The researchers also found that for the tribal government to be effective, it needed to be based on the cultural traditions of the tribe and not simply on forms that were at one time imposed by the federal government.
Many reservations lack access to capital, credit, and financial services U. Department of the Treasury , which stifles entrepreneurship and other economic development activities that lead to job creation. Native American community development financial institutions CDFI are an important solution to this problem. The analysis in Part I shows that there are some states and tribes where Native Americans are receiving significant boosts to their odds of employment. What is occurring in these states, and can it be replicated?
Is it due to state policies, tribal policies, fortuitous economic circumstances, or something else? As is often the case with research, the findings of this study lead to new, important questions. Among tribes, the limited data available suggest that the Tlingit-Haida, Aleut, Cherokee, Choctaw, Pueblo, Lumbee, Creek, Chippewa, and Eskimo tribes had relatively high odds of being employed. As with the states where Native Americans are doing relatively well, these tribes need to be investigated further to understand why they are faring better than most other tribes. Their successes may be transferable to American Indians more broadly. Even after taking these factors into account, Native Americans still did particularly poorly in some states relative to whites.
These states may also present an opportunity to improve Native American employment outcomes. There may be situations where there are job opportunities in a state, but for some perhaps easily addressed reason, Native Americans are blocked from those opportunities. If we can better understand what the cause is, we may be able to address it and equalize Native American and white employment outcomes. Of all the variables in the analysis in Part I, the educational attainment variables produced the largest positive effect on the odds of employment.
Policies that can increase Native American educational attainment appear to have strong potential for improving the employment rates of American Indians. There are many policies that may be effective at accomplishing this. Children from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds tend to do worse in school than middle-class children precisely because they come from disadvantaged socioeconomic backgrounds Lee and Burkam It is necessary to improve family and community resources to enable children to do their best in school.
What follows are several ways to achieve this:. Improve maternal and child health : There are lessons for Native Americans from research on African Americans. While black students perform worse than white students on standardized tests, black test scores have improved over time, and the black—white test score gap narrowed considerably over the s. Recent research suggests that this narrowing was due to improved neonatal health outcomes for black children following the desegregation of hospitals in the s. A larger proportion of Native Americans than whites are uninsured, and they fare poorly on health access measures.
Native Americans who have health coverage through the federally funded Indian Health Service have low rates of contact with health professionals James, Schwartz, and Berndt The post-neonatal mortality rate of Native Americans is about twice that of whites National Center for Health Statistics Improvement of the maternal and child health of Native Americans is likely to improve the educational performance of Native American children. Provide high-quality early childhood education : Research has shown that high-quality early childhood education can have long-term positive impacts on educational attainment.
The best programs increase the likelihood of high school and college completion Barnett and Belfield American Indian three- and four-year-olds have one of the lowest rates of preschool enrollment. Over —, 58 percent of American Indian children were not enrolled in preschool, compared with 50 percent of non-Hispanic white children Kids Count Data Center For the American Indians who are enrolled in preschool, one has to wonder about the relative quality of their preschools compared with those of whites. The data suggest that whites have access to better quality early childhood education than nonwhites Lee and Burkam A high-quality preschool for Native Americans would also have to be respectful of Native American culture and history.
Maximize the number of regular high school diplomas: One-fifth Native Americans who obtain regular high school diplomas have higher odds of finding employment than those who drop out of high school and those who obtain GEDs. Preventing students from dropping out of high school may be the employment policy with the lowest upfront costs since some of the programs involve reforming and adding to already existing educational institutions. Increase the number and size of tribal programs supporting higher education : The National Congress of American Indians Policy Research Center has assembled examples of tribal programs to support the higher education and training of tribal members.
These programs help tribes develop the human capital necessary for their economic development. They also potentially provide role models and mentors to encourage others to pursue higher education. The fact that Native Americans have lower odds of being employed even after controlling for age, education, state of residence, reservation residence, urbanicity, marital status, disability status, and other factors leaves open the possibility that Native Americans may face racial discrimination in the labor market. As such, it would not be surprising for Native American job applicants to also face discrimination in the labor market.
There should be research employing the paired-tester methodology to investigate whether this is indeed the case. It would be useful to conduct this research in the states where Native Americans have the lowest odds of employment relative to whites: South Dakota, North Dakota, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Montana, Utah, and Arizona. Understanding and improving the economic conditions of Native Americans requires good data.
The tribal-level data in the ACS appear to have coding inaccuracies, and do not have sufficient detail to study labor market conditions on many reservations in a timely fashion. There should be additional research to assess the accuracy of the ACS data for studying Native Americans. It seems that it will be necessary for surveys to be designed specifically to collect tribal-level data.
Native Americans face clear economic challenges. Their employment rates are far below those of whites, both in the country overall and at the state level—and Native Americans have lower odds of employment than whites even after accounting for various demographic factors. At the same time, however, the path forward is also clear. In short, the challenge is great—but so is the promise. We can point to a growing number of tribes where not only are the majority of members working, but where the tribe also contributes positively to the local economy.
PREE works to advance policies that enable people of color to participate fully in the American economy and benefit equitably from gains in prosperity. He received his Ph. Note: These data include American Indian multiracials and Hispanics of both races, but exclude the foreign born. The more disadvantaged a population, the harder the population is to cover in surveys Schmitt and Baker It is also important to note that differences in sampling and methodology cause the labor force statistics in the ACS to differ from the Current Population Survey, the source of the statistics produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Illinois is included on the recommendation of the National Congress of American Indians.
In the tribal employment analyses, the possible coding problem is partially addressed by limiting tribal designations to the state with the greatest number of individuals. The other individuals are dropped from the analysis. In the cases where a reservation is known to span two or more adjacent states, residents from adjacent states are all included as members of the tribe. Even if one limits a tribal designation to one state, this does not mean that the data refer to one tribe. The Apache data in the analysis in this section, which are restricted to residents of Arizona, then likely pool data from all four of these tribes.
Unfortunately, this BIA report has not been updated since Austin, Algernon. Barnett, W. Steven, and Clive R. Chang, Mariko. Insight Center for Community Economic Development. Chay, Kenneth Y. Cornell, Stephen, and Joseph P. DeWeaver, Norm. Fiddler, Tanya. Department of the Treasury. Inter Tribal Council of Arizona, Inc. The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Kids Count Data Center. Annie E. Casey Foundation. Lee, Valerie E. Washington, D. National Center for Health Statistics. Department of Health and Human Services. National Congress of American Indians. Securing Our Futures. Effective Strategies for Dropout Prevention. Ruggles, Steven J. Schroeder, and Matthew Sobek. University of Minnesota.
Schmitt, John, and Dean Baker. Center for Economic and Policy Research. Census Bureau. White House Office of the Press Secretary. See related work on Race and Ethnicity American Indians. See more work by Algernon Austin. See related work on Race and Ethnicity and American Indians. Part I finds: Over —, the American Indian employment rate among to year-olds i. Of the 34 states examined for Native American employment over —, the highest American Indian employment rates were in Nebraska In all of the 34 states examined, there was a large, very large, or extremely large Native American—white employment rate disparity in — Even when Native Americans are similar to whites in terms of factors such as age, sex, education level, marital status, and state of residence, their odds of being employed are 31 percent lower than those of whites.
It argues: All levels of government should support strong Native American self-determination and leadership. The number of Native American community development financial institutions should be increased, and existing ones should be strengthened. Researchers need to conduct investigations of the states and tribes with the best Native American employment situations to see what lessons can be learned. Researchers need to conduct investigations of the states with the worst Native American employment situations to see what can be improved. The following policies will likely increase the Native American employment rate through improved educational outcomes: Improving Native American maternal and child health Providing high-quality early childhood education for Native American children Maximizing the number of regular high school diplomas obtained by Native Americans Increasing the number and size of tribal programs supporting higher education Researchers should investigate the role of racial discrimination in Native American employment outcomes.
To better understand tribal labor market conditions, researchers will need better labor market data than are available in the American Community Survey. Part I: An examination of the Native American employment rate The following sections explain that despite making some strides in recovering from a long history of subjugation, American Indians still suffer economically. Why focus on the employment rate One major factor behind the high poverty rates and low wealth of American Indians is their low rate of employment.
Native American and white employment rates The analysis below compares the employment rates i. Table 1. Share on Facebook Tweet this chart. Copy the code below to embed this chart on your website. Figure A. Using the unemployment rate Using the employment rate Number of jobs needed 90, , Chart Data Download data The data below can be saved or copied directly into Excel. The data underlying the figure. Table 2.
American Indian alone American Indian in combination with other races Difference alone — in combination Table 3. Table 4. On reservation Off reservation Difference on reservation — off reservation Table 5. Figure B. State Employment-Rate Gap Mississippi Source: Author's analysis of data from Ruggles et al. Table 6. Table 7. Table 8. Table 9. TableOnce someone stops looking for work, she is no longer counted Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper unemployed; she is defined as not being in the labor force. Controlling for all Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper factors, prime-working-age Native Americans still have 31 percent Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper odds of being employed Romeo And Juliet Letters Analysis similar whites see Appendix Table A for the full logistic regression results. Almost all arthur leigh allen zodiac 10 cm 4 Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper in diameter and smaller will produce sprouts Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper more than half of sawlog-size trees can be expected to produce stump sprouts Other helpful notes can Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper added at the end such as Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper System Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper note. Figure A illustrates the value of focusing on the employment rate Mother Figures In Flannery O Connors Good Country People the unemployment rate. Table 5. These tribes potentially have lessons that could be shared to help Dakota 38 + 2 Research Paper the employment rates of American Loss Of Freedom In The Shawshank Redemption generally.