✍️✍️✍️ What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter
It would not What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter, or Government Surveillance Vs. Privacy with miserable dimness, the figures with which I did my best to people it. Trust What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter His power and goodness means we trust that God will do Literary Devices In Beowulf He desires to do in us and through us. Ker reductionism vs holism, Thus the figure of 45 million is probably the sum of these two other figures of 15 million killed from to and 30 million killed in 40 years including the period from to What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter, at least, breaks the figure into categories, but does not What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter where the estimate of Terrorism Tactic Tactics million comes from. Altars Some of the What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter articles, which contribute to What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter up the volume, have likewise been written since my involuntary withdrawal from the toils and honors of public life, and the What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter are gleaned Persuasive Essay On Xenotransplantation annuals and magazines of such antique date that they have gone round the circle, and come back to novelty again.
Analysis of The Minister's Black Veil by Nathaniel Hawthorne and the Nature of Secret Sin
Brownlee estimates the slaughter of Saracens in Spain at 3 million, but other estimates are higher. Joseph Berg writes [Lectures on Romanism, D. Paolo says it cost eighty battles in Germany alone. One can also list the Catholic crusade against the Albigenses in Southern France from with one to two million killed. These were accompanied by the indiscriminate massacre of the helpless populations in the regions invaded. Computations for the total number of Waldenses killed can easily range into many millions, as shown elsewhere.
These could make up the balance of the 50 million killed in Europe. But the persecutions only increased their numbers, by scattering them in many lands. Finally a crusade was pronounced against them. James and John Knapton, London, , p. Likewise in Germany there was an infinite number of them killed. Of course nearly all of the Cathari were killed. They were said to be very zealous for their faith, and few would have recanted. In addition, if the Cathari conducted a census, they must have been a cohesive group. There must have been many other "heretics" that had similar beliefs but were not part of the Cathari; it would be reasonable to estimate at least 8 million when these were included. This would imply that the number of those killed by the Papacy before the Reformation was 8 million or more, especially when one considers the hundreds of years that elapsed since the Papacy was established.
For evidence that there were many sects during this time and that they were very numerous and willing to die for their faith rather than to recant, Neander [General History of the Christian Religion and Church: Translated from the German of Dr. This sect [Thondracians, a sect of Paulicians], though it met with no mercy from the bishops, at whose instigation it was fiercely persecuted, continually revived, and spread [p. The corruption of the clergy furnished the heretics a most important vantage-ground from which to attack the dominant church and its sacraments. The ignorance of the people on religious subjects exposed them to be continually deceived by those who were seeking, on whatever side, to work upon the minds of the multitude.
Except in the case of one ecclesiastic and one nun, all the pains which were taken to reclaim them from their errors, in other words, to induce them to recant, were to no purpose. The others, thirteen in number, were condemned to the stake, and died there. Those therefore who were deprived of the privilege of dying as martyrs, died cheerfully under self-inflicted tortures. The Catharists were zealous in disseminating their principles everywhere; they were careful to improve every favorable circumstance for this purpose, and seized upon every occurrence which could serve as a means to it. The intrepidity and calmness with which the Catharists faced an excruciating death might well create an impression in their favour on those who were not altogether hardened by fanaticism.
Such was their boldness that, in open defiance of the church, they [the Catharists] proceeded to elect a pope for themselves, to act as supreme head over their scattered communities. Such a pope appears in South France, Nequinta. Delegates of the sect visited him from all quarters, for the purpose of consulting him on disputed matters. And it is mentioned as a characteristic fact, that the rudest and most unlettered peasant who joined their sect, would in less than eight days gain so much knowledge of the Scriptures, that he could not be foiled in argument by any man.
The corruption of the clergy had, even in places where the church-system of doctrine was still held fast, excited great dissatisfaction and violent complaints, as appears evident from the songs of the Troubadours, who came from these districts, where this tone of feeling is not to be mistaken. The clergy and the church service had here, ever since the last times of the twelfth century, been treated with contempt and ridicule. After the land had been laid waste for thirty years, the blood of thousands had been spilt, and a general submission had thus, in the year , been finally brought about by force, the maintenance of the faith was still by no means secured for the future. The sects destroyed by fire and sword sprang up afresh out of the same needs of the spirit from which they had sprung up at the beginning.
Many of these sects were essentially Protestants, so that many of their martyrs can be included in the figure of 50 million Protestants killed by the Papacy. Perrin, who was a leading Waldensian minister, writes [History of the Waldenses, Book I, Chapter III, ] that the Waldenses were called by many names including Albigenses, Josephists, Lollards, Henricians, and Arnoldists and that many false accusations were made against them in order to induce the secular powers to persecute them.
They were also called Cathari, Arians, and Manichees. Also, the Bohemians obtained their beliefs somewhat earlier from the Waldenses. Therefore there is a direct connection between the Waldenses and the later Protestants. Where does the figure of 15 million killed in the period and in war and the Inquisition come from? It is possible to conjecture about this as well, considering the large numbers of people even in Catholic countries that were accepting Protestantism. Sermons on different subjects, by the late Reverend John Jortin, London : printed for Benjamin White, Also, "It [the Reformation] was most cordially welcomed in Prussian Poland" and "In Poland proper, the new movements spread with great power" [Kurtz p.
The same was true in Bohemia; "Thus Bohemia became an evangelical country; in a hundred inhabitants not more than one or two were Catholics" [Kurtz p. One commentator said that more than half of France was Huguenot at one point. As for Spain, "About , the reformatory movement acquired so general and comprehensive a character, that a Spanish historian of that period expresses the belief that all Spain would have fallen a prey to the heresy, if the Inquisition had delayed the application of the remedy but three months" [Kurtz, p. In Italy, the same was true, because it took many years to eradicate Protestantism: "in a special Inquisition was instituted to suppress Protestantism in Italy, which, with reckless, fanatical fury, punished every appearance of Protestantism with imprisonment, the galleys, the scaffold, and the stake; nevertheless, it did not accomplish its purpose until towards the close of the century" [Kurtz, p.
Of course Protestantism was also prevalent in the Protestant countries of Europe. Everywhere multitudes were accepting the true gospel. The Papacy felt its life was at stake, and met the threat with the most determined measures. Wherever Protestantism appeared, it was viciously persecuted, both in the period from to and later. Concerning the period from to , R.
About the year Martin Luther begain to shine as a great light in Germany, and his doctrine soon overspread Bohemia, and all the parts adjoining; which so enraged the pope and his clergy that they continually raised very violent persecutions against them, wherein multitudes of good Christians lost their lives by means of Ferdinand I. Germany was miserably torn and rent to pieces by the cruelties and severities which they inflicted in order to extinguish the light of the gospel. The duke of Saxony and the landgrave of Hesse stood up for the protestants, and were taken prisoners in the year Also, in Luther was pronounced a heretic and punishments against him and his followers were decreed.
In Hadrian the Sixth incited the princes of Germany to root out the teachings of Luther. Cayley, A history of political and religious persecutions : from the earliest days of the Christian church, London, ? In Clement the Seventh urged the senate of Paris to punish the Lutheran heresy that had sprung up among them. In Germany, after the victories of Charles V [about ], against the Lutherans, there ensued a very bitter persecution in many places, authority armed with laws and vigorous malice striving against simple verity.
Both ministers and people, some were tossed from place to place; some exited out of their native countries, others driven into the woods, and forced to live in caves; some tormented upon the rack, and others burnt with fire and faggot. The poor, who had no money to pay by way of mitigation, for thinking and acting right, were [here the passage becomes very explicit, so those who are sensitive should NOT read the rest of it] Racked, Burnt, Sawn asunder, Thrown from rocks, Torn by wild horses, Cut to pieces, Hanged, Drowned, Stabbed, Boiled in oil, Immured and starved, Beheaded, had boiling lead poured down their throats, were thrown on spears, hung up by the ribs, or crucified with their heads downwards.
Those who were taken experienced the most cruel tortures that infernal imaginations could invent; and by their constancy evinced, that a real Christian can surmount every difficulty, and despise every danger, to acquire a crown of martyrdom. With so many persons accepting Protestantism, the total number killed would have been large. Kurtz [History of the Church , p. Unless there is a deliberate effort to massacre the people, a war will not cause such losses of population. This suggests that a million or more persons were killed in persecutions in Hungary. Bohemia lost about 3 million, well over half of its population, due to such persecutions.
In Spain "In twenty of thirty years the evangelical course was suppressed" by the Inquisition [Kurtz, p. Similar losses were probably occurring in Roman Catholic countries all over Europe. The Romanists had all the means of aggression in their own hands. The Protestants could hope, at best, for nothing better than a gradual extinction. The Jesuits were at work here, as everywhere, and their diabolical principles were soon to work the ruin of their defenseless adversaries. Speaking of Siebenbuergen, Newman [p. In and rigorous imperial laws were promulgated against the spread of the new doctrine. Siebenbuergen is known in English as Transylvania and is a geographical region of Romania near the Hungarian border. It covers about 39, square miles. Speaking of a colony of Saxons in the Siebenbuergen area, Newman [p.
Like Poland, Hungary, and Siebenbuergen, it fell an easy prey to the Jesuits, who from onward were carefully laying their plans for the crushing of all forms of evangelical teaching and the restoration of papal authority. Speaking of Austria, Newman [p. The Protestants struggled heroically, as long as successful resistance seemed possible. Nowhere do we find a nobler type of Lutheranism than in this region. No country in Europe was readier to throw off the papal yoke and to adopt evangelical Christianity. Apart from Hapsburg rulers, Romanism would have been swept away almost without resistance. Hapsburg conservativism and Jesuit zeal were more than a match for the sturdy Lutheran nobles.
Thus, for instance, in Austria, where a large part of the people had become Protestants, the Catholic religion was brought back, chiefly by the help of the Jesuits. Speaking of Germany and Austria after , Newman [p. Within a few years Protestantism had been almost completely exterminated throughout the Hapsburg domains, multitudes having been slaughtered, and the rest banished or forcibly converted. The Jesuits were the instigators and the chief agents in this horrible work. Concerning Belgium, Newman [p. Half the population had been Protestant. Within a few years it became exclusively Catholic. Lest anyone think that these people were fleeing to other countries, it is important to recall that the objective of the Jesuits was to eliminate Protestants and not to push them from one country to another.
Thus the Jesuits would have attempted by every means to prevent their escape. In support of this, Halley [pp. By these methods they Stopped the Reformation in Southern Europe and virtually saved the Papacy from ruin. In Bohemia, by , in a population of 4,,, 80 per cent were Protestant. When the Hapsburgs and Jesuits had done their work, , were left, all Catholics. In Austria and Hungary half the population Protestant, but under the Hapsburgs and Jesuits they were slaughtered. In Poland, by the end of the 16 th century, it seemed as if Romanism was about to be entirely swept away, but here too, the Jesuits, by persecution, killed Reform. Of the common people not fewer than 36, families emigrated.
There was hardly a kingdom in Europe where the exiles of Bohemia were not to be met with. Scholars, merchants, traders, fled from a land which was given over as a prey to the disciples of Loyola, and the dragoons of Ferdinand. Of the 4,, who inhabited Bohemia in , a miserable remnant, amounting not even to a fifth, were all that remained in Bohemia had its population reduced from three million to seven hundred and eighty thousand, and there were parts of the continent where unburied corpses lay so thick that the regions had to be avoided until nature had done its work with the putrefying bodies of the dead.
Kurtz [p. Ferdinand Extirpates Protestantism. It need scarcely be said that Ferdinand followed up his victories in the Austro-Hungarian Empire by vigorous measures for the extirpation of Protestantism. The Jesuits were on hand in full force to aid in the terrible work. This is not the place to describe the process by which Protestants, who in Bohemia at the beginning of the war constituted eighty per cent of the population, were in an incredibly short time almost wholly exterminated.
The Counter-Reformation did its work here with an amazing thoroughness. Roman Catholicism had an opportunity here to exhibit itself in its true character. The time for expediency had ended. The rigid carrying out of the principles of the body now had place. Upon this there followed a cruel persecution, so that almost in every city, town, or village the protestants suffered great torments and barbarities. In some places they shut up the people in the church, and forced them to receive in one kind, and if they would not kneel before the host, they used to beat their legs with clubs till they fell down; others they gagged, and when they had propped their mouths wide open, they thrust the host down their throats.
Others were detained in prisons and bonds so long till they died, and particularly one was kept in a loathsome dungeon so long till his feet rotted off. The country people were fetched out of their houses; nay, out of their very beds, by troops of soldiers, who drove them before them like beasts in the sharpest of cold and bitter weather. And with these poor creatures they filled the common prisons, towers, cellars, stables; nay, and hog-sties too, where they were killed with hunger, cold, and thirst. Marriage, burial and baptism were forbidden to the Protestants, and if they did it privately, they were imprisoned, or else put to great fines.
And these were the charitable ways, by which the Bohemian Catholics endeavored to reclaim such as were revolted from the tyrrany of the Pope. The pope wrote to the king:. Know that the interests of the Holy See, and those of your crown, make it a duty to exterminate the Hussites. Remember that these impious persons dare proclaim principles of equality; they maintain that all Christians are brethren and that God has not given to privileged men the right of ruling the nations; they hold that Christ came on Earth to abolish slavery; they call the people to liberty, that is to the annihilation of kings and priests.
While there is still time, then, turn your forces against Bohemia; burn, massacre, make deserts everywhere, for nothing could be more agreeable to God, or more useful to the cause of kings, than the extermination of the Hussites. Also, speaking of Rome, "not content with petty cruelties, but still clearing her way to absolute dominion, by general massacres, entire desolations, and utter extirpations. B, op. Every city, town, and village, presented scenes of horror and cruelty; no inhumanity was left unthought of, no barbarity unpracticed. Age, sex, or rank, made no distinction; all protestants fell alike the undistinguished victims of bigoted rage. Southwell [op. The cruelty of the Cossacks was such, that even the Tartars, at last, grew ashamed of it, and rescued some of the intended victims from their hands.
In Protestant countries as well, many would have been persecuted during the transition to Protestantism. If we take into account the multitudes who died of starvation and exposure, the hundreds of thousands of women and children who were slain in the sacking and destroying of the towns and cities, the fearful waste of life that must have been involved in camp-following, the deaths caused by the war would amount to many millions.
In Bohemia, at the beginning of the war, there was a population of two million, of whom about eight-tenths were Protestant; at the close of the war there were about eight hundred thousand Catholics and no Protestants. Taking Germany and Austria together, we may safely say that the population was reduced by one-half, if not by two-thirds. And the deaths were in most cases the result of untold sufferings and as horrible as we can conceive. Theses enormous cruelties will be a perpetual stain on the memory of count Tilly, who not only permitted, but even commanded his troops to put them in practice. Combes, London, and A. Peisley, Oxford, ] writes,.
Their very Name is almost extinct in France. Persecution typically only increases the zeal and growth of the Christian Church. These Protestant communities could only have been eliminated by killing on a massive scale. The vast reduction of the Protestant communities in Europe also shows that the Protestants did not migrate from one country to another, and if they had, there would have been records of mass migrations of millions of people, with a significant impact on the culture of the receiving countries. Besides, the Papacy knew that persecution would only cause Protestantism to grow faster, and realized that the only hope of eliminating it was by a war of extermination.
Because the population of Europe in was about 80 to million, mostly in Catholic countries, it is reasonable to assume that a large proportion of the population of Europe accepted Protestantism and faced persecution. In many regions half or more of the population accepted Protestantism, and many of these persons were slaughtered. Even some of those who gave up their faith under suffering were killed. From to large numbers of people would have been accepting Protestantism and would have met such a reaction from the church.
Therefore significant population losses due to persecution would have taken place in all Catholic countries in Europe during these years and later. Such losses might have been viewed as the "Inquisition" by some writers. Therefore it is reasonable to assume that the Inquisition claimed millions of victims in the century or two after the Reformation, though the Jesuits would not have been initially involved because they were only recognized in After all, the Jesuits did not originate the policy that heretics should be killed; they merely implemented it. The extent of the Inquisition can also be surmised from the following quotation, which estimates five million souls killed during the Reformation in Spain:. But the country in which the Inquisition has reached its most flourishing estate is Spain.
This tribunal was first introduced into Catalonia in , and propagated over all Spain. It was re-established in greater pomp and terror in by Ferdinand and Isabella, chiefly for the spiritual good of the Jews, then numerous in Spain. The bull of Sixtus V. Wylie, LL. This could partially explain the figure of 15 million for war and the Inquisition because most of the victims may have suffered after Those in prison can be counted as killed because they undoubtedly died much sooner than otherwise, and lived the remainder of their lives in miserable conditions.
In fact, the Inquisition continued for many years:. When the papal government was temporarily suspended in by the Roman Republic, the Inquisition was found in active operation, and it was restored the moment the Pope returned to Rome. The various horrors of the place,--its iron rings, its subterranean cells, its skeletons built up in the wall, its trap-doors, its kiln for burning bodies, with parts of humanity remaining still unconsumed,--were all exposed at the time. These partial disclosures may convince us, perhaps, that it is better that the veil which conceals the full horrors of the Inquisition should remain unlifted till that day when the graves shall give up their dead.
Also, Berg [Lectures on Romanism, p. When the inquisition was thrown open in , by order of the Cortes of Madrid, of the twenty one prisoners who were found in it, not one of whom knew the name of the city in which he was, some had been confined three years, some a longer period, and not one knew perfectly the nature of the crime of which he was accused. One of these prisoners had been condemned, and was to have suffered the following day. His punishment was to be death by the pendulum. If 5 million were killed in Spain alone in the Inquisition, the total for all countries could easily be much higher, because the Inquisition was established in many countries:.
Wherever the poor Albigenses and Waldenses fled, the Inquisition followed them; and in a few years it was set up not only in Italy, Spain, and Piedmont, but in France and Germany, Poland and Bohemia, and in course of time it extended as far as Syria and India. Spain, Portugal, and Italy were decimated by this tribunal. Another source that indicates millions killed in the Inquisition is Halley:. It is also certain that the inquisitorial records preserved represent a very small part of the actual inquisitorial proceedings. In fact, many were killed by the secular authorities and would not even be recorded in the official records of the Inquisition:. The Papacy would still be responsible for these deaths because it insisted that the secular authorities should persecute heretics.
Jones writes. Authors of undoubted credit affirm, and without the least exaggeration, that millions of persons have been ruined by this horrible court. Also, Robert Bellarmine, a Roman Catholic scholar, write sometime in the period that "almost infinite numbers were either burned or otherwise killed" by the Catholic Church [Disputationes de Controversiis Christianae Fidei Adversus Hujus Temporis Haereticos Disputations about the Controversies of the Christian faith Against the Heretics of this Time , Tom. Thus a number of sources including Wesley give evidence that war and the Inquisition were responsible for millions of deaths during this thirty year period.
After such a survey of the persecutions, it is possible to revisit the question of how the total of 50 million was computed. Germany and Bohemia lost most of their population, and "the countries of Poland, Lithuania, and Hungary, were in a similar manner deluged with Protestant blood. Austria also had many slaughtered: "Taking Germany and Austria together, we may safely say that the population was reduced by one-half, if not by two-thirds. Previously, it had included all of the Netherlands and Switzerland, and parts of France and Italy. Thus there may have been bitter persecution against Protestants in all of these countries: "Within a few years Protestantism had been almost completely exterminated throughout the Hapsburg domains, multitudes having been slaughtered, and the rest banished or forcibly converted.
All the countries of the Holy Roman Empire, excluding Germany and Bohemia, together with other areas such as Siebenbuergen could easily have had five million victims of persecution. Almost all of those killed in all of these locations would have been Protestants: "The emperor Ferdinand the second, was a great Persecutor of the Protestants in Bohemia and Germany, who after his victory over Frederick, Prince Palatine, and the Bohemian States, made it his work to root out the Protestant Religion in those Countries, and turned them into a very shambles of Blood, sparing neither Age, Sex, nor Rank that refused to abjure the Truth.
Because the Inquisition lasted a long time, the total number killed could easily have been significantly larger. At any rate, this method of computation appears to be eminently reasonable. Even apart from the specific figures, the general context is important. The Jesuits "were soon the favorite confessors in the imperial court and in many of the royal courts of Europe" and "dictating to [rulers] the measures to be employed for the eradication of heresy. Even where the Jesuits were not the favorite confessors, the Papacy would have motivated Catholic rulers to a similar policy.
At the time of the Reformation, "multitudes of Heretics and Schismatics, as they called them, arose in all places" so there would have been multitudes of Protestants killed in all the Catholic countries of Europe, and the Catholic Church would have been directly responsible for these deaths. Another method of computation also yields large figures. Part II. Christianity: Its Evidences. Its Origin. Its Morality. Its History, section I] writes,. This refers only to witches, but it illustrates the attitude of the church to heretics in general. Because the church had a uniform policy in all places, one can expect similar numbers of heretics to have been killed everywhere in Europe. The Waldenses and Albigenses, so renowned for their numbers, their virtues, and the purity of their faith, taught, in the 12 th and 13 th centuries, that the pope was Antichrist, and the church of Rome the Babylon of the Apocalypse.
Footnote: Such, says Vitringa, was the language of pious men in general, during the whole of the four centuries which preceded the Reformation. In Apoc. The population of Europe from to averaged about 65 million people. If one percent of the population was sometimes burnt as witches per year, one can assume that on the average half a percent of the population was slain each year as heretics altogether. This would amount to an average of about , persons killed per year for years, or million persons total killed during these four hundred years. These figures do not even consider those killed in the New World and the non-Christians killed in Europe and Asia.
Adding in these deaths might explain the commonly quoted figure of million killed by the Papacy. Adding in non-Christians killed in Europe might explain some of the higher figures. Adding in the total killed assuming half a percent killed per year in Europe for four hundred years would yield about million total killed. Omitting those killed in the New World would yield a total of about million.
This might explain where many of the commonly quoted figures come from. There is another computation that yields million killed by the Papacy. In "Romanism in the light of prophecy and history: its final downfall, and the triumph of the church of Christ" [New York, American and Foreign Christian Union, , p. He then writes,. And, O merciful Father in heaven, this does not include the millions of their own people, and her enemies, which fell in her crusades, and wars, and massacres! Here thirty millions and a half would be a moderate calculation! Other estimates of the number of Indians killed range from 30 to 40 million; using these, one obtains a total of about million instead.
It is notable that discussions of the Reformation and Inquisition in modern historical works omit the religious wars from consideration and omit all consideration of the large number of people who accepted Protestantism in the early years of the Reformation, thereby hiding the truth about the magnitude of past persecutions. However, even though much of the truth about history is being forgotten, there is still enough evidence remaining to show that the figure of 50 million killed for their faith by the Papacy in Europe is reasonable. These computations do not even include the extermination of the Heruli, Vandals, and Ostrogoths, or those who died in the Crusades. There is some additional information about the number killed in Europe in the Middle Ages.
For this, G. Orchard in A Concise History of the Baptists, , chapter 2, section 11 estimates that there were over 3 million persons possessing evangelical views in northern Italy in , and mentions another authority as giving an estimate twice as large. He states that the number eventually "quadrated," which may imply that it became four times as large, that is, 12 million or possibly 24 million persons, whom he calls Anabaptists. Almost all of these were presumably killed in persecutions.
Also, of the seventy sects exterminated, which Reinerius mentioned, the great majority were probably Christians in Europe, and probably averaged well over , members each. This would yield at least 7 million more Christians killed in Europe. Together with 12 million Anabaptists, this gives 19 million Christians killed in Europe. In general, whenever the Papacy extended its territory, it appears that a significant fraction or even a majority of the population was killed, as occurred in Bohemia, Spain, Central and South America, with the Waldenses, and in the extermination of the Vandals, Ostrogoths, and Heruli. Therefore the number killed was larger than the number remaining.
Extending this proportion to all of Europe with a population of 50 to million at the time yields an estimate of 50 to million or more killed as the Papacy extended its sway over Europe. For example, the conversion of Prussia to Christianity in the thirteenth century was accompanied by deliberate extermination by the Teutonic Knights. It is also possible to perform this computation in another way. There were 3 million or more persons with views similar to the Waldenses in northern Italy in They were gradually worn down by persecution over a period of several centuries. The number in their valleys in was only 10, or 20,, but many in other places adhered to their beliefs.
Assume their average number during these centuries was about 1. Now, a group of people following a Biblical lifestyle should at least double in population each century; this represents a growth rate of less than one percent a year. Thus during these centuries their total increase should have been at least 4. Together with the original 3 million, this leads to a loss of 7. When one adds in their fellow believers in other lands the total would be undoubtedly over 9 million. Because they were active missionaries, the Lord would have blessed their efforts, so one can assume 9 million more were converted through their efforts, leading to a total of 18 million lost to persecution. If one assumes 6 million at the start, as another authority does, the total would be 36 million lost to persecution.
Either a larger growth rate or a larger number of Waldenses, as several writers attest, or more converts could easily put the total over 50 million. Therefore it is not at all unreasonable to assume that 50 million or more Anabaptists, or Bible believing Christians, as some suggest, were killed in Europe in the Middle Ages by persecution. Another point is that the persecution of the Waldenses lasted four centuries, from to , rather than three, according to Armitage. Therefore it is reasonable to multiply the above estimates by four thirds, obtaining 24 million or possibly 48 million Waldenses and their converts killed. Furthermore, the actual estimate was 3. Thus the estimates should all be increased by about 7 percent, to nearly 26 million and over 51 million, respectively.
In addition, a Bible believing church that is on fire for the Lord will generally grow by at least 5 percent a year, and persecution generally only increases the rate of growth. Because the Waldenses were highly motivated and active in missionary work, one can expect a similar rate of growth for them. With an average population of 1. Adding the original 3 million gives 33 million, and increasing the result by about 7 percent would put the total at about 35 million, without considering Waldenses in other countries.
Including these, a lower bound for the total lost to persecution would appear to be about 40 million. Assuming twice as many persons with evangelical beliefs gives a total of 70 or 80 million. If one assumes that the population of Waldenses held steady during these four centuries instead of decreasing, the totals nearly double again, to nearly 70 million and nearly million, without even considering Waldenses in other countries. It is possible to give a partial explanation of where the figure of 3. In , there were probably only about 10, to 20, Waldenses in the valleys of northern Italy, so these , persons must have been distributed throughout Europe.
It is reasonable to assume that these persons descended from the inhabitants of northern Italy, because elsewhere persecution would have largely wiped out the Waldenses. Because their numbers were continually reduced by persecution, the number of Waldenses in northern Italy in would have been at least , Also, Orchard assumes that for every person who was officially a member of the church there were three others with similar beliefs; this could include unbaptized children as well as other adults who for some reason did not have their names on the church books.
Another authority gives a ratio of seven to one. This is where the total of 3. The most reasonable assumption overall seems to be that there were at one time at least twice as many Waldenses as there were in , and that this number gradually decreased to , over the course of four centuries. Also, one can assume that the total number of persons with similar beliefs was at least four times as large, and thus decreased from about 6 million to about 3 million.
This leads to an average population of 4. Increasing the number by seven percent gives about 96 million, and adding in the 3 million lost along the way gives 99 million. This may explain where the sometimes quoted total of million comes from. The Spanish Inquisition. Now let us consider in particular the Spanish inquisition. Quoting Schmucker,. Llorente had access to the records of the Spanish Inquisition. He calculated that more than , suffered persecution in Spain, of whom 31, died in the flames.
In the course of the first year in which it was erected, the inquisition of Seville, which then extended over Castile, committed two thousand persons alive to the flames, burnt as many in effigy, and condemned seventeen thousand to different penances. According to a moderate computation, from the same date until , the year in which Luther made his appearance, thirteen thousand persons were burnt alive, eight thousand seven hundred were burnt in effigy, and one hundred and sixty nine thousand seven hundred and twenty three were condemned to penances, making all in all one hundred and ninety one thousand four hundred and twenty three persons condemned by the several tribunals of Spain in the course of thirty six years. There is reason for thinking that this estimate falls much below the truth.
According to Puigblanch, "Inquisition Unmasked," the number of reconciled and banished in Andalusia from to was a hundred thousand, while forty five thousand were burnt alive in the archbishopric of Seville. Cecil Roth in "History of the Marranos," page , cites Amadeo de los Rios as giving the figures of 28, burned alive, 16, burned in effigy, and , punished in other ways. These figures are exclusively for Jews up to , in less than half a century of existence, implying that the true figures are larger even than Llorente quoted. However, they are exceeded by the indications given by the intensely Catholic Amadeo de los Rios, usually most moderate in his views.
Wilder page 86 presents the figures in a way that can explain some of the misunderstanding about the number killed. Quoting Llorente, page 5,. The horrid conduct of this holy office weakened the power and diminished the population of Spain, by arresting the progress of the arts, sciences, industry, and commerce, and by compelling multitudes of families to abandon the kingdom, by instigating the expulsion of the Jews and the Moors, and by immolating on its flaming piles more than three hundred thousand victims. The number of victims of the Inquisition will never be known until the day of final retribution.
Various have been the numbers set down. Many were banished from Spain, a million at a time. From six to eight hundred thousand Jews were driven away from it at once; and all their property seized. This number fixed on by this unusually accurate historian, is far below the truth. It is generally admitted that under the first Inquisitor of Spain alone, namely, Torquemada , no less than , human beings suffered: under the above three classes, that is, they were burned; or they perished on the rack, or by it; or in exile; and perpetual confinement! In fact, quite a number perished in prison during the Inquisition, and these are omitted from the usual statistics, as mentioned in a web article:. It was with reason that the Serbian Orthodox Bishop, Dr.
Nikolaj Velimirovic, so well known to the Anglo-Saxon world, compared what happened in Croatia, on such a large scale, with the darkest days of the Middle Ages. In an article published in by the ecclesiastical review Svecanik, the Bishop wrote: "The Spanish Inquisition is noted for its atrocities. The head inquisitor, named by the Pope, was the Dominican Monk Thomas de Torquemada, who is remembered with such sinister bitterness. During the eighteen year period of his mandate, 10, persons were burned at the stake while , according to the historian Motley perished from hunger and torture in their prisons, which meant , people within a period of eighteen years.
This record is frightful enough, but the inquisition of the Serbian Orthodox was much more terrible, for , Serbs were killed in just four years. This figure of , is apparently in error and according to Llorente should include all that were punished by any means by Torquemada during this eighteen year period, including life imprisonment. There is also indirect evidence of the magnitude of the victims of the inquisition:. No secrets could be withheld from the inquisitors; hundreds of persons were often apprehended in one day, and in consequence of information resulting from their examinations under torture, thousands more were apprehended. Prisons, convents, even private houses, were crowded with victims; the cells of the inquisition were filled and emptied again and again; its torture chamber was a hell.
Grattan Guinness, lectures, London, England, , lecture 4, page To make the subject personal, here is the testimony of one of the victims:. Before we let fall the curtain upon this awful subject, let us listen for a moment to some of the words of William Lithgow, a Scotsman, who suffered the tortures of the Inquisition in the time of James I. After telling of the diabolical treatment he received, which was very similar to that I have just described, he says, "Now mine eyes did begin to startle, my mouth to foam and froth, and my teeth to chatter like the dobbling of drumsticks. Oh, strange, inhuman, monster man-manglers!. And notwithstanding of my shivering lips in this fiery passion, my vehement groaning, and blood springing from my arms, my broken sinews, yea, and my depending weight on flesh-cutting cords, yet they struck me on the face with cudgels to abate and cease the thundering noise of my wrestling voice.
I am innocent. Here let the curtain drop. I should sicken you were I to pursue the subject further; it is too horrible, too damnable. Grattan Guinness, lectures, London, England, , Lecture 4 pp. Lower estimates for the number of victims of the Inquisition also exist, as cited by a Roman Catholic on a discussion board:. The best estimate of the total number of executions under the Spanish Inquisition comes from the Encyclopedia Judaica not a Catholic source which estimates the number at around 7, It should be remembered that the Inquisition was a court charged with hearing cases for all crimes committed on Church property or against the Church, clerics, or professed religious.
There were several capital crimes under the Inquisition's jurisdiction besides heresy. These included murder, rape, kidnapping, assault on a bishop, and others. So there is considerable disagreement in the figures concerning the Spanish inquisition. And such disagreements occur in the larger context, as well. The figures are rapidly decreasing with time, and our memory of past persecutions is being lost. Because records and memories are lost with the passage of time, in general the earliest records and those closest to the source are to be preferred.
Another quotation helps to explain some of the discrepancies. And Walter M. Montano, writing in Christian Heritage, says:. The number of victims sacrificed by the Inquisition in Spain almost exceeds credulity. Yet it has been shown by Llorente, who carefully examined the records of the Tribunal, and whose statements are drawn from the most authoritative sources, that , victims fell under the inquisitor-general Torquemada; 51, under Cisneros; and 14, fell under Diego Perez. It is further reckoned that 31, were burned alive! Half that number, 15, suffered the punishment of the statute, and , were sent to penitentiaries. Half a million families were destroyed by the Inquisition, and it cost Spain two million children!
The figure of 15, which perhaps should be 17, represents those who were killed before being burnt. Many were also expelled from Spain; this could explain the figure of two million. Roth in "The Spanish Inquisition," page , discussing those who were expelled from Spain, says. The number of the exiles has been estimated variously between , and 3,, It probably lies much nearer to the first of these figures. Some of the exiles had to leave their children behind to be raised as Roman Catholics, which can explain the comment about destroying half a million families.
The whole number of Jews expelled from Spain by Ferdinand and Isabella is variously computed at from , to , souls; a discrepancy sufficiently indicating the paucity of authentic data. Most modern writers, with the usual predilection for startling results, have assumed the latter estimate; and Llorente has made it the basis of some important calculations in his History of the Inquisition. A view of all the circumstances will lead us without much hesitation to adopt the most moderate computation.
This, moreover, is placed beyond reasonable doubt by the direct testimony of Bernaldez. He reports that a Jewish rabbi, one of the exiles, subsequently returned to Spain where he was baptized by him. This person estimated the whole number of his unbaptized countrymen, at the publication of the edict, at thirty-six thousand families. Another Jewish authority, quoted by the curate, reckoned them at thirty-five thousand. This, assuming an average of four and a half to a family, gives the sum total of about , individuals.
We need look no further for the principle of action, in this case, than the spirit of religious bigotry which led to a similar expulsion of the Jews from England, France, and other parts of Europe, as well as from Portugal, under circumstances of peculiar atrocity, a few years later. The distress occasioned by this cruel provision may be well imagined. Many of the unhappy parents murdered their children to defeat the ordinance; and many laid violent hands on themselves. Professor Gerard Dufour shows that the impressive numbers of Llorente which are almost universally accepted are "not at all convincing. How did Llorente arrive at his figures? The answer is quite simple. Totally ignorant of the number of victims of the Inquisition, he fabricated them from conjectural accounts available to him with regard to the tribunal of Seville during the first years of its activity, numbers provided by the early chroniclers and historians and a lost inscription.
As Mariana, one of the ancient historians, pointed out, Llorente did not take note of the fact that these numbers were only rumors. Moreover, carried away by his passions, Llorente quoted inexactly and exaggerated greatly in his additions. For, as Gerard Dufour noted, among the 2, victims mentioned by Mariana were included some added up by Llorente, and the mentioned by Bernaldez, the anti-Semitic chronicler who moreover had inflated the number to satisfy the needs of his cause.
Llorente did not take all these facts into account. Having thus taken "entirely erroneous numbers," and these only from Seville during the early years, Llorente tranquilly multiplied them by the total number of Inquisitorial tribunals and by the number of years they functioned. Dumont is a non-Catholic professor of history at the Sorbonne in Paris and argues for very low figures.
But at least from his explanation it is clear that Llorente made use not only of the records of the Inquisition but also oral accounts, which he considered as reliable. Perhaps Llorente did not believe that the written records of the inquisition were complete. Berthelot, Hartwig Derenbourg [etc. Paris: H. Lamirault, This echoes the figure of , from Brownlee, but with a different meaning.
Another problem with interpreting such figures is that of language. If a writer says that there were 68 million "victims" of the Papacy then it could be misunderstood that they were all killed. Other sources claim that Llorente asserted , were killed which was probably due to a translation or copying error as explained by Dumont. However, Llorente himself gives a smaller number that were killed, and a large number that were punished but not killed. What is the basis for such a large overall estimate, whether it be 50 million, 68 million or million killed?
Dowling does not say where he obtained his figure. Brownlee, at least, breaks the figure into categories, but does not say where the estimate of 50 million comes from. Another source also gives some information about this topic, namely, M. Aletheia , The Rationalist's Manual :. Let us look for a moment at the number of victims sacrificed on the altars of the Christian Moloch: -- 1,, perished during the early Arian schism; 1,, during the Carthaginian struggle; 7,, during the Saracen slaughters.
In Spain 5,, perished during the eight Crusades; 2,, of Saxons and Scandinavians lost their lives in opposing the introduction of the blessings of Christianity. Wars against the Netherlands, Albigenses, Waldenses, and Huguenots. Total, 56,, The source for this quote appears to be "Letters from Rome" by Middleton. Of course, Protestants as well as Catholics have implemented witch hunts.
But perhaps Middleton was the source of some of these figures of millions killed by the Papacy. Because he was not an orthodox Christian, some Protestant writers may have been reluctant to cite him. From the information given it is possible to explain the origin of some of the common figures. The method of computation of the 50 million figure was discussed in a previous chapter. Brownlee shows how the figures of 68 and 69 million derive from the 50 million figure.
The figures of and million for the number killed by the Papacy in the Middle Ages are still unexplained. It is noteworthy that these figures of millions killed by the Papacy do not derive solely from nineteenth century scholarship, as is sometimes claimed, but also go back to sources in the eighteenth and even seventeenth century Clarke. If Clarke cited two million killed of the Waldenses alone, surely he would have reckoned the total killed by the Papacy at many millions.
The question remains whether these figures about the magnitude of religious persecution are trustworthy. Even though the figure of 56 million is broken into categories by Middleton, it is unclear where the individual figures come from and how reliable they are. It is possible, at least, to give a partial answer to this question. Middleton gives a figure of a million killed among the Waldenses, Albigenses, and others; Mede cited in Cassels gives a figure at least as large. Clarke doubles the figure. For this figure, at least, Dr. Middleton had some basis, and did not invent it out of thin air.
The same is true of the figure of 9 million witches killed:. Gottfried Christian Voigt extrapolated from his section of Germany to calculate 9,, witches killed throughout Europe. From this came the common estimate of 9 million. Therefore the figure of 9 million witches killed also has a source and was not made up. None of the figures were increased; in fact some of them may even have been reduced. Even the figure of 30,, Mexicans and Peruvians killed, for which we do not have a source, is not too far off from the estimate of 15 million given by Schmucker, cited above. However, it would be useful to look at one of these figures in more detail, to see how reliable it is. This can help to give insight into the reliability of the entire estimate.
It is possible to reconstruct how Voigt arrived at his figure. This is from a German publication, Sepp-Depp, from July, Quoting Voigt,. In a 30 year period he found records of 30 cases of witches being condemned. He estimates the actual number to be at least twice as high, but for the sake of an estimate supposes that 40 witches were burnt during this 30 year period. One or two executions of heretics a year would have only been a tiny fraction of the population, but no less serious thereby.
This number is conceivable, in a sense. Now, the number of witches executed may have varied from time to time and from place to place, so the above estimate is not necessarily correct. However, Voigt felt that his area of Germany was representative of Europe as a whole for this year period. Modern rebuttals to his figures mention that not many records exist of witches being executed. But this ignores the fact that records are often lost or destroyed; even Voigt realizes this in his discussion. Some executions may never have even been recorded. Concerning witches, it is interesting that many of those debating the 9 million figure have no idea where it came from, and those ridiculing the figure act as though it were invented out of thin air.
Some say that these high death toll figures are tinged by anti-Catholicism. One could just as well say that arguments against these figures are tinged by pro-Catholicism. The figures are so large that even Protestants probably found them hard to believe and preferred smaller rather than larger figures. They are all specialized in specific fields.
To ensure our writers are competent, they pass through a strict screening and multiple testing. All our writers are graduates and professors from the most prestigious universities and colleges in the world. We have writers who are native speakers and non-native speakers. Our writers have great grammar skills. Being one of the largest online companies in the world providing essay writing services, we offer many academic writing services. Some of the services we offer include;.
We offer essay help for more than 80 subject areas. You can get help on any level of study from high school, certificate, diploma, degree, masters, and Ph. We accept payment from your credit or debit cards. We also accept payment through. PayPal is one of the most widely used money transfer method in the world. It is acceptable in most countries and thus making it the most effective payment method. We offer free revision in case you are not satisfied with the order delivered to you. For such an order you are expected to send a revision request and include all the instructions that should be followed by the writer. Also remember to state the exact time the writer should take to do your revision.
We offer free revision as long as the client does not change the instructions that had been previously given. In case a client want to alter the instructions, revision can be done but at a negotiated fee. We do not take the issue of plagiarism rightly. As a company we try as much as possible to ensure all orders are plagiarism free. We also have a plagiarism detection system where all our papers are scanned before being delivered to clients.
We have writers who are always ready to work and take up orders with a short deadline. We deliver papers as early as after 3 hours of ordering. You only have to indicate the short deadline and our support team will help pick the best and most qualified writer in your field. The writer will confirm whether they will submit the paper within the set deadline. After confirmation, your paper will be delivered on time. We never at any time reuse the papers we write for our clients. We also do not have a database of previously written papers. We never send published papers to clients nor do we publish the papers after sending them to our clients. Whether to reference us in your work or not is a personal decision. If it is an academic paper, you have to ensure it is permitted by your institution.
We do not ask clients to reference us in the papers we write for them. When we write papers for you, we transfer all the ownership to you. This means that you do not have to acknowledge us in your work not unless you please to do so. Our online assignment help is one of the best essay writing help in the world as we work with international students from the most prestigious universities in the world. We write quality papers for our clients as we have employed highly qualified academic writers from all over the world. Our writers are able to handle complex assignments from their field of specialization.
When it comes to finding the best specialist for your paper there are 3 categories of specialist that we have to look at;. Turning to course help online for help is legal. Getting assignment help is ethical as we do not affect nor harm the level of knowledge you are expected to attain as a student according to your class syllabus. Our services are here to provide you with legitimate academic writing help to assist you in learning to improve your academic performance.
With course help online, you pay for academic writing help and we give you a legal service. This service is similar to paying a tutor to help improve your skills. Our online services is trustworthy and it cares about your learning and your degree. Hence, you should be sure of the fact that our online essay help cannot harm your academic life. You can freely use the academic papers written to you as they are original and perfectly referenced. Whenever students face academic hardships, they tend to run to online essay help companies.
If this is also happening to you, you can message us at course help online. We will ensure we give you a high quality content that will give you a good grade. We can handle your term paper, dissertation, a research proposal, or an essay on any topic. We are aware of all the challenges faced by students when tackling class assignments. You can have an assignment that is too complicated or an assignment that needs to be completed sooner than you can manage. You also need to have time for a social life and this might not be possible due to school work. The good news is that course help online is here to take care of all this needs to ensure all your assignments are completed on time and you have time for other important activities.
We also understand you have a number of subjects to learn and this might make it hard for you to take care of all the assignments. You are expected to do a thorough research for each assignment to earn yourself a good grade even with the limited time you have. This calls upon the need to employ a professional writer. When you employ one of our expert writers, you can be sure to have all your assignments completed on time.
All your assignment deadlines will be met plus you will have an original, non-plagiarized and error free paper. With our Achiever Papers' services, you are assured of a completely original and error free paper written exclusively for your specified needs, instructions and requirements. All our papers are original as they are all written from scratch. We also do not re-use any of the papers we write for our customers. With this guarantee feel comfortable to message us or chat with our online agents who are available 24hours a day and 7 days a week be it on a weekend or on a holiday. As a busy student, you might end up forgetting some of the assignments assigned to you until a night or a day before they are due. This might be very stressing due to inadequate time to do a thorough research to come up with a quality paper.
Achiever Papers is here to save you from all this stress. Let our professional writers handle your assignments and submit them to you no matter how close the deadline seems to be. This will protect you from all the pressure that comes along with assignments. You are assured of a high quality assignment that is error free and delivery will be done on time. We have a reliable team that is always available and determined to help all our clients by improving their grades. We are reliable and trusted among all our clients and thus you can entrust your academic work on us. For any academic help you need, feel free to talk to our team for assistance and you will never regret your decision to work with us.
You can entrust all your academic work to course help online for original and high quality papers submitted on time. We have worked with thousands of students from all over the world. Most of our clients are satisfied with the quality of services offered to them and we have received positive feedback from our clients. We have an essay service that includes plagiarism check and proofreading which is done within your assignment deadline with us.
This ensures all instructions have been followed and the work submitted is original and non-plagiarized. We offer assignment help in more than 80 courses. We are also able to handle any complex paper in any course as we have employed professional writers who are specialized in different fields of study. From their experience, they are able to work on the most difficult assignments. The following are some of the course we offer assignment help in;. In case you cannot find your course of study on the list above you can search it on the order form or chat with one of our online agents for assistance. We will take care of all your assignment needs We are a leading online assignment help service provider.
Place an Order. Calculate your essay price. Type of paper. Academic level. Pages words. Read more. Plagiarism-free papers To ensure that all the papers we send to our clients are plagiarism free, they are all passed through a plagiarism detecting software. Calculate the price of your order Type of paper needed:. Pages: words. You will get a personal manager and a discount. Academic level:. We'll send you the first draft for approval by September 11, at AM.
Total price:. What advantages do you get from our Achiever Papers' services? All our academic papers are written from scratch All our clients are privileged to have all their academic papers written from scratch. We do not offer pre-written essays All our essays and assignments are written from scratch and are not connected to any essay database.
Urgent orders are delivered on time Do you have an urgent order that you need delivered but have no idea on how to do it? We provide quality assignment help in any format We have writers who are well trained and experienced in different writing and referencing formats. Order a custom-written paper of high quality.Sure enough, they really spill the beans with the next bit. Seeing, however, that year by year, as winter appears, all her glory vanishes, her flowers fade, and her trees become leafless, they poetically expressed this process of nature under the figure of a lost love. The sun in the center of the solar system hoax is likely pulled from the Tree of Life diagram above. For such an order you are expected to send a revision request and include all the instructions that What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter be followed by the writer. Each intersection What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter marked by a cabochon emerald with a rose gold fleurette at each corner. Hapsburg conservativism and Jesuit zeal were more The Pros And Cons Of Sunk Cost Fallacy a What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter for the sturdy What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter nobles. And its fitting that the festival is celebrated shortly after What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter summer solstice, because the sun has just begun its slow decline to death in winter, Nicholas Carrs Analysis night net, What Does The Ministers Black Veil Symbolize In The Scarlet Letter, abyss wins, for its appointed period menstruation; death-as-dissolution-of-form.