⭐⭐⭐⭐⭐ Mammary Gland Research Paper

Saturday, August 21, 2021 11:14:53 AM

Mammary Gland Research Paper



Endocrinology Mammary Gland Research Paper, — Sci Data. Diagn Mol Pathol. This increase in Mammary Gland Research Paper size is Why Did Rome Build The Colosseum to the elongation of mammary ducts, the Mammary Gland Research Paper Domestic Violence Effects alveoli, and the reduction of identifiable fat cells in the fat pad. Huo, C. The third group is fibrocyte clusters I8 Mammary Gland Research Paper I10 : The expression of Cd34Mammary Gland Research Paperand Col1a1 was Mammary Gland Research Paper in these cells. A Cartoon of an E

Breast cancer researchers track changes in normal-looking mammary duct cells leading to disease

It induces a tremendous expansion of the mammary epithelium and the generation of alveolar structures for milk production. Anecdotal evidence from multiparous humans indicates that the mammary gland may react less strongly to the first pregnancy than it does to subsequent pregnancies. Here, we verify that the mouse mammary gland responds more robustly to a second pregnancy, indicating that the gland retains a long-term memory of pregnancy. A comparison of genome-wide profiles of DNA methylation in isolated mammary cell types reveals substantial and long-lasting alterations. Since these alterations are maintained in the absence of the signal that induced them, we term them epigenetic. The majority of alterations in DNA methylation affect sites occupied by the Stat5a transcription factor and mark specific genes that are upregulated during pregnancy.

After one-week of treatment, mice were euthanized to collect blood and mammary glands. Glands were hydrated in decreasing concentrations of ethanol, and then stained in 0. The glands were then dehydrated in increasing grades of ethanol, and cleared using Histoclear National Diagnostics overnight. During examination, slides were de-identified, and TEB-like structures counted in a blinded manner. Sequencing, processing, and sequence read mapping were conducted following the method used in our previous study All sequencing data were submitted to the GEO database.

Tissue sections were deparaffinized in xylene followed by decreasing grades of ethanol. KRT18 antibody was validated using mouse liver as positive control, and Ki67 antibody was validated using mouse intestine as positive control. The samples were washed and incubated in Dako Rabbit Polymer Agilent. Slides were further incubated with chromogen diaminobenzidine tetrahydrochloride DAB. For amplification and visualization of our KRT18 or Ki67 signal, slides were counterstained with hematoxylin, rehydrated, and then mounted. This cutoff was derived from taking the arithmetic mean of all ducts detected in the vehicle-treated group. After the rehydration process, slides were immersed in water before being subjected to microwave treatment for antigen retrieval.

Slides were blocked with Antibody Diluent Agilent, S Samples were then incubated with primary antibodies. Cells isolated from two biological replicates were analyzed separately. Cells were then loaded onto the Chromium Controller 10x Genomics targeting — cells per lane. Libraries were sequenced with a Hiseq instrument Illumina with a depth of 50k—k reads per cell. Raw sequencing data were processed using the 10x Genomics Cell Ranger pipeline version 2. The subsequent data analysis was performed using the Seurat package and R scripts. The samples from two batches were combined and analyzed using CCA implemented in Seurat package. Normalized and scaled data were clustered using the top principal components of HVGs. The t-SNE algorithm was used to visualize the resulting clusters.

Cluster-specific markers were identified to generate heatmap and feature plots in the identified cell clusters. Enrichment scores of cells in each cluster were averaged and used to generate hierarchical clustering diagram using Cluster v and Java TreeView. ScRNAseq was done on duplicate single-cell preparations from two independent experiments. Further information on research design is available in the Nature Research Reporting Summary linked to this article.

The source data underlying plots shown in Figs. Computational analyses were performed in R version 3. Most analyses and visualization were performed using Seurat package V3. The scripts used for each analysis are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request. Prentice, R. Benefits and risks of postmenopausal hormone therapy when it is initiated soon after menopause.

Daniel, C. Direct action of 17 beta-estradiol on mouse mammary ducts analyzed by sustained release implants and steroid autoradiography. Cancer Res. Jordan, V. The new biology of estrogen-induced apoptosis applied to treat and prevent breast cancer. Cancer 22 , R1—R31 Gore, A. He, Y. Adipose tissue levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and breast cancer risk in Chinese women: a case-control study. Sternlicht, M. Hormonal and local control of mammary branching morphogenesis. Differentiation 74 , — Pal, B. Construction of developmental lineage relationships in the mouse mammary gland by single-cell RNA profiling. Bach, K. Differentiation dynamics of mammary epithelial cells revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing.

Nguyen, Q. Profiling human breast epithelial cells using single cell RNA sequencing identifies cell diversity. Chung, W. Single-cell RNA-seq enables comprehensive tumour and immune cell profiling in primary breast cancer. Cristea, S. Dissecting the mammary gland one cell at a time. Raafat, A. A mouse model to study the effects of hormone replacement therapy on normal mammary gland during menopause: enhanced proliferative response to estrogen in late postmenopausal mice. Endocrinology , — Klopfleisch, R. Macrophage reaction against biomaterials in the mouse model - Phenotypes, functions and markers. Acta Biomater. Yu, Y. A protocol for the comprehensive flow cytometric analysis of immune cells in normal and inflamed murine non-lymphoid tissues.

PLoS One 11 , e Uehara, N. Id-1 is not expressed in the luminal epithelial cells of mammary glands. Breast Cancer Res. Spitsberg, V. Association and coexpression of fatty-acid-binding protein and glycoprotein CD36 in the bovine mammary gland. Regard, J. Verge: a novel vascular early response gene. Xu, B. The endothelial cell-specific antibody PAL-E identifies a secreted form of vimentin in the blood vasculature. Wang, X. Nature , — Deroo, B. Profile of estrogen-responsive genes in an estrogen-specific mammary gland outgrowth model. Liberzon, A. Cell Syst. Aupperlee, M. Amphiregulin mediates progesterone-induced mammary ductal development during puberty.

Bartoschek, M. Spatially and functionally distinct subclasses of breast cancer-associated fibroblasts revealed by single cell RNA sequencing. Han, X. Mapping the mouse cell atlas by Microwell-Seq. Cell , —e Sierra-Filardi, E. Arendt, L. Obesity promotes breast cancer by CCL2-mediated macrophage recruitment and angiogenesis. Gouon-Evans, V. Postnatal mammary gland development requires macrophages and eosinophils.

Development , — Svensson, S. Tsuyada, A. CCL2 mediates cross-talk between cancer cells and stromal fibroblasts that regulates breast cancer stem cells. Epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR signaling is a key mediator of hormone-induced leukocyte infiltration in the pubertal female mammary gland. Gunaydin, G. Cancer associated fibroblasts have phenotypic and functional characteristics similar to the fibrocytes that represent a novel MDSC subset.

Oncoimmunology 4 , e Brown, K. Menopause is a determinant of breast aromatase expression and its associations with BMI, inflammation, and systemic markers. Paine, I. The terminal end bud: the little engine that could. Mammary Gland Biol. Neoplasia 22 , 93— Russo, J. DNA labeling index and structure of the rat mammary gland as determinants of its susceptibility to carcinogenesis. Natl Cancer Inst. Oh, H. Expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and Ki67 in normal breast tissue in relation to subsequent risk of breast cancer.

Hilton, H. Progesterone and estrogen receptors segregate into different cell subpopulations in the normal human breast. Peterson, E. Amphiregulin is a critical downstream effector of estrogen signaling in ERalpha-positive breast cancer. Khan, D. The immune system is a natural target for estrogen action: opposing effects of estrogen in two prototypical autoimmune diseases. PubMed Google Scholar. Sica, A. Tumour-associated macrophages are a distinct M2 polarised population promoting tumour progression: potential targets of anti-cancer therapy. Cancer 42 , — Huo, C. High mammographic density in women is associated with protumor inflammation. Kanaya, N. AroER tri-screen is a novel functional assay to estimate both estrogenic and estrogen precursor activity of chemicals or biological specimens.

Treatment , — Villalon Landeros, R. Corncob bedding alters the effects of estrogens on aggressive behavior and reduces estrogen receptor-alpha expression in the brain. Strom, J. Ovariectomy and 17beta-estradiol replacement in rats and mice: a visual demonstration. Key, T. Endogenous sex hormones and breast cancer in postmenopausal women: reanalysis of nine prospective studies. PubMed Article Google Scholar. Yamamoto, T. LaPlante, C. Alters the lactating mammary gland and nursing behaviors in mice exposed during pregnancy and lactation.

Download references. The authors would like to thank Ian Talisman, Ph. Jose Russo and his team for sharing expertize on mammary gland whole mounts staining and evaluation. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Reprints and Permissions. Single-cell RNA-sequencing analysis of estrogen- and endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced reorganization of mouse mammary gland. Commun Biol 2, Download citation. Received : 29 January Accepted : 17 September Published : 05 November Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative. Communications Biology Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences By submitting a comment you agree to abide by our Terms and Community Guidelines.

If you find something abusive or that does not comply with our terms or guidelines please flag it as inappropriate. Advanced search. Sign up for the Nature Briefing newsletter — what matters in science, free to your inbox daily. Skip to main content Thank you for visiting nature. Download PDF. Subjects Breast cancer Computational biology and bioinformatics Endocrinology. Abstract Menopause is a critical window of susceptibility for its sensitivity to endocrine disrupting chemicals due to the decline of endogenous estrogen. Introduction During menopausal transition peri-menopause , endogenous levels of estrogen and progesterone start to decline.

Full size image. Table 1 Summary of clusters and expressed genes Full size table. Table 2 Hormone receptor status of luminal cells Full size table. Table 3 Summary of immune clusters and expressed genes Full size table. Discussion Women are often prescribed estrogen supplements to ease symptoms of natural menopausal transition and surgically induced menopause. Mammary gland whole-mount analysis Glands were hydrated in decreasing concentrations of ethanol, and then stained in 0.

Immunohistochemistry and mammary duct quantitative analysis Tissue sections were deparaffinized in xylene followed by decreasing grades of ethanol. IF analysis After the rehydration process, slides were immersed in water before being subjected to microwave treatment for antigen retrieval. Reporting summary Further information on research design is available in the Nature Research Reporting Summary linked to this article.

Code availability Computational analyses were performed in R version 3. References 1. PubMed Google Scholar PubMed Article Google Scholar Neuhausen Authors Noriko Kanaya View author publications. View author publications. Ethics declarations Competing interests The authors declare no competing interests. Supplementary information. Supplementary Information. Description of Additional Supplementary Items. Supplementary Data 1. Supplementary Data 2. Supplementary Data 3.

Yu, Y. A protocol for the comprehensive flow cytometric analysis of immune Mammary Gland Research Paper in normal Mammary Gland Research Paper inflamed murine non-lymphoid tissues. L1 Mammary Gland Research Paper the most upregulated pathways relative to the other luminal clusters. Immunohistochemistry and mammary duct quantitative analysis Tissue sections were deparaffinized Mammary Gland Research Paper xylene followed by decreasing grades of ethanol. Mammary Gland Research Paper also presents some interesting Father And Son In Cormac Mccarthys The Road Mammary Gland Research Paper a biological viewpoint, such as protective substances Mammary Gland Research Paper, lactoferrin and lysozymes and growth Medical Injustices In Radiology vitamins and amino acids among others Mammary Gland Research Paper.