⒈ Nobles In The Medieval Ages

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Nobles In The Medieval Ages

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What It Was Like to be a Knight During Medieval Times

Another order, the Teutonic Knights , although founded in the crusader states, focused much of its activity in the Baltic after , and in moved its headquarters to Marienburg in Prussia. During the 11th century, developments in philosophy and theology led to increased intellectual activity. There was debate between the realists and the nominalists over the concept of " universals ". Philosophical discourse was stimulated by the rediscovery of Aristotle and his emphasis on empiricism and rationalism.

Scholars such as Peter Abelard d. In the late 11th and early 12th centuries cathedral schools spread throughout Western Europe, signalling the shift of learning from monasteries to cathedrals and towns. This movement tried to employ a systemic approach to truth and reason [] and culminated in the thought of Thomas Aquinas d. Chivalry and the ethos of courtly love developed in royal and noble courts. This culture was expressed in the vernacular languages rather than Latin, and comprised poems, stories, legends, and popular songs spread by troubadours , or wandering minstrels.

Often the stories were written down in the chansons de geste , or "songs of great deeds", such as The Song of Roland or The Song of Hildebrand. Legal studies advanced during the 12th century. Both secular law and canon law , or ecclesiastical law, were studied in the High Middle Ages. Secular law, or Roman law, was advanced greatly by the discovery of the Corpus Juris Civilis in the 11th century, and by Roman law was being taught at Bologna. This led to the recording and standardisation of legal codes throughout Western Europe.

Canon law was also studied, and around a monk named Gratian fl. Among the results of the Greek and Islamic influence on this period in European history was the replacement of Roman numerals with the decimal positional number system and the invention of algebra , which allowed more advanced mathematics. Astronomy advanced following the translation of Ptolemy 's Almagest from Greek into Latin in the late 12th century. Medicine was also studied, especially in southern Italy, where Islamic medicine influenced the school at Salerno.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, Europe experienced economic growth and innovations in methods of production. Major technological advances included the invention of the windmill , the first mechanical clocks, the manufacture of distilled spirits , and the use of the astrolabe. The development of a three-field rotation system for planting crops [] [Z] increased the usage of land from one half in use each year under the old two-field system to two-thirds under the new system, with a consequent increase in production.

Horses are faster than oxen and require less pasture, factors that aided the implementation of the three-field system. The construction of cathedrals and castles advanced building technology, leading to the development of large stone buildings. Ancillary structures included new town halls, houses, bridges, and tithe barns. Other improvements to ships included the use of lateen sails and the stern-post rudder , both of which increased the speed at which ships could be sailed. In military affairs, the use of infantry with specialised roles increased. Along with the still-dominant heavy cavalry, armies often included mounted and infantry crossbowmen , as well as sappers and engineers.

Cannon were being used for sieges in the s, and hand-held guns were in use by the s. In the 10th century the establishment of churches and monasteries led to the development of stone architecture that elaborated vernacular Roman forms, from which the term "Romanesque" is derived. Where available, Roman brick and stone buildings were recycled for their materials. From the tentative beginnings known as the First Romanesque , the style flourished and spread across Europe in a remarkably homogeneous form.

Just before there was a great wave of building stone churches all over Europe. Dodwell , "virtually all the churches in the West were decorated with wall-paintings", of which few survive. Romanesque art, especially metalwork, was at its most sophisticated in Mosan art , in which distinct artistic personalities including Nicholas of Verdun d. Large illuminated bibles and psalters were the typical forms of luxury manuscripts, and wall-painting flourished in churches, often following a scheme with a Last Judgement on the west wall, a Christ in Majesty at the east end, and narrative biblical scenes down the nave, or in the best surviving example, at Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe , on the barrel-vaulted roof.

From the early 12th century, French builders developed the Gothic style, marked by the use of rib vaults , pointed arches , flying buttresses , and large stained glass windows. It was used mainly in churches and cathedrals and continued in use until the 16th century in much of Europe. During this period the practice of manuscript illumination gradually passed from monasteries to lay workshops, so that according to Janetta Benton "by most monks bought their books in shops", [] and the book of hours developed as a form of devotional book for lay-people.

Metalwork continued to be the most prestigious form of art, with Limoges enamel a popular and relatively affordable option for objects such as reliquaries and crosses. Monastic reform became an important issue during the 11th century, as elites began to worry that monks were not adhering to the rules binding them to a strictly religious life. It sought to maintain a high quality of spiritual life by placing itself under the protection of the papacy and by electing its own abbot without interference from laymen, thus maintaining economic and political independence from local lords.

Monastic reform inspired change in the secular Church. The ideals upon which it was based were brought to the papacy by Pope Leo IX pope — , and provided the ideology of clerical independence that led to the Investiture Controversy in the late 11th century. This involved Pope Gregory VII pope —85 and Emperor Henry IV, who initially clashed over episcopal appointments, a dispute that turned into a battle over the ideas of investiture , clerical marriage, and simony.

The emperor saw the protection of the Church as one of his responsibilities as well as wanting to preserve the right to appoint his own choices as bishops within his lands, but the papacy insisted on the Church's independence from secular lords. These issues remained unresolved after the compromise of known as the Concordat of Worms. The dispute represents a significant stage in the creation of a papal monarchy separate from and equal to lay authorities.

It also had the permanent consequence of empowering German princes at the expense of the German emperors. The High Middle Ages was a period of great religious movements. Besides the Crusades and monastic reforms, people sought to participate in new forms of religious life. New monastic orders were founded, including the Carthusians and the Cistercians. The latter, in particular, expanded rapidly in their early years under the guidance of Bernard of Clairvaux d. These new orders were formed in response to the feeling of the laity that Benedictine monasticism no longer met the needs of the laymen, who along with those wishing to enter the religious life wanted a return to the simpler hermetical monasticism of early Christianity, or to live an Apostolic life.

Old pilgrimage sites such as Rome, Jerusalem, and Compostela received increasing numbers of visitors, and new sites such as Monte Gargano and Bari rose to prominence. In the 13th century mendicant orders —the Franciscans and the Dominicans —who swore vows of poverty and earned their living by begging, were approved by the papacy. Others joined the Cathars , another movement condemned as heretical by the papacy. In , a crusade was preached against the Cathars, the Albigensian Crusade , which in combination with the medieval Inquisition , eliminated them. The first years of the 14th century were marked by famines, culminating in the Great Famine of — These troubles were followed in by the Black Death , a pandemic that spread throughout Europe during the following three years.

Towns were especially hard-hit because of their crowded conditions. Wages rose as landlords sought to entice the reduced number of available workers to their fields. Further problems were lower rents and lower demand for food, both of which cut into agricultural income. Urban workers also felt that they had a right to greater earnings, and popular uprisings broke out across Europe. The trauma of the plague led to an increased piety throughout Europe, manifested by the foundation of new charities, the self-mortification of the flagellants , and the scapegoating of Jews. Society throughout Europe was disturbed by the dislocations caused by the Black Death. Lands that had been marginally productive were abandoned, as the survivors were able to acquire more fertile areas.

Partly at the urging of landlords, governments attempted to legislate a return to the economic conditions that existed before the Black Death. Jewish communities were expelled from England in and from France in Although some were allowed back into France, most were not, and many Jews emigrated eastwards, settling in Poland and Hungary. Many banking firms loaned money to royalty, at great risk, as some were bankrupted when kings defaulted on their loans. The long conflicts of the period strengthened royal control over their kingdoms and were extremely hard on the peasantry. Kings profited from warfare that extended royal legislation and increased the lands they directly controlled.

Throughout the 14th century, French kings sought to expand their influence at the expense of the territorial holdings of the nobility. Conversely, the Wars had a positive effect on English national identity , doing much to fuse the various local identities into a national English ideal. The conflict with France also helped create a national culture in England separate from French culture, which had previously been the dominant influence. In modern-day Germany, the Holy Roman Empire continued to rule, but the elective nature of the imperial crown meant there was no enduring dynasty around which a strong state could form. The major power around the Baltic Sea was the Hanseatic League, a commercial confederation of city-states that traded from Western Europe to Russia.

Although the Palaeologi emperors recaptured Constantinople from the Western Europeans in , they were never able to regain control of much of the former imperial lands. They usually controlled only a small section of the Balkan Peninsula near Constantinople, the city itself, and some coastal lands on the Black Sea and around the Aegean Sea. The power of the Byzantine emperors was threatened by a new Turkish tribe, the Ottomans , who established themselves in Anatolia in the 13th century and steadily expanded throughout the 14th century.

The Ottomans expanded into Europe, reducing Bulgaria to a vassal state by and taking over Serbia after its defeat at the Battle of Kosovo in Western Europeans rallied to the plight of the Christians in the Balkans and declared a new crusade in ; a great army was sent to the Balkans, where it was defeated at the Battle of Nicopolis. During the tumultuous 14th century, disputes within the leadership of the Church led to the Avignon Papacy of —76, [] also called the "Babylonian Captivity of the Papacy" a reference to the Babylonian captivity of the Jews , [] and then to the Great Schism , lasting from to , when there were two and later three rival popes, each supported by several states.

Further depositions followed, and in November , the council elected Martin V pope —31 as pope. Besides the schism, the Western Church was riven by theological controversies, some of which turned into heresies. John Wycliffe d. The Hussite Church, although the target of a crusade, survived beyond the Middle Ages. The papacy further refined the practice in the Mass in the Late Middle Ages, holding that the clergy alone was allowed to partake of the wine in the Eucharist.

This further distanced the secular laity from the clergy. The laity continued the practices of pilgrimages, veneration of relics, and belief in the power of the Devil. Mystics such as Meister Eckhart d. Besides mysticism, belief in witches and witchcraft became widespread, and by the late 15th century the Church had begun to lend credence to populist fears of witchcraft with its condemnation of witches in , and the publication in of the Malleus Maleficarum , the most popular handbook for witch-hunters. Their efforts undermined the prevailing Platonic idea of universals. Ockham's insistence that reason operates independently of faith allowed science to be separated from theology and philosophy.

The lone exception to this trend was in England, where the common law remained pre-eminent. Other countries codified their laws; legal codes were promulgated in Castile, Poland, and Lithuania. Education remained mostly focused on the training of future clergy. The basic learning of the letters and numbers remained the province of the family or a village priest, but the secondary subjects of the trivium —grammar, rhetoric, logic—were studied in cathedral schools or in schools provided by cities. Commercial secondary schools spread, and some Italian towns had more than one such enterprise. Universities also spread throughout Europe in the 14th and 15th centuries. Lay literacy rates rose, but were still low; one estimate gave a literacy rate of 10 per cent of males and 1 per cent of females in The publication of vernacular literature increased, with Dante d.

Much literature remained religious in character, and although a great deal of it continued to be written in Latin, a new demand developed for saints' lives and other devotional tracts in the vernacular languages. In the early 15th century, the countries of the Iberian Peninsula began to sponsor exploration beyond the boundaries of Europe. Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal d. After his death, exploration continued; Bartolomeu Dias d. One of the major developments in the military sphere during the Late Middle Ages was the increased use of infantry and light cavalry.

In agriculture, the increased usage of sheep with long-fibred wool allowed a stronger thread to be spun. In addition, the spinning wheel replaced the traditional distaff for spinning wool, tripling production. Northern Europe and Spain continued to use Gothic styles, which became increasingly elaborate in the 15th century, until almost the end of the period. Although royalty owned huge collections of plate, little survives except for the Royal Gold Cup.

In France and Flanders tapestry weaving of sets like The Lady and the Unicorn became a major luxury industry. The large external sculptural schemes of Early Gothic churches gave way to more sculpture inside the building, as tombs became more elaborate and other features such as pulpits were sometimes lavishly carved, as in the Pulpit by Giovanni Pisano in Sant'Andrea. Painted or carved wooden relief altarpieces became common, especially as churches created many side-chapels. Early Netherlandish painting by artists such as Jan van Eyck d. From about printed books rapidly became popular, though still expensive. There were around 30, different editions of incunabula , or works printed before , [] by which time illuminated manuscripts were commissioned only by royalty and a few others.

Very small woodcuts , nearly all religious, were affordable even by peasants in parts of Northern Europe from the middle of the 15th century. More expensive engravings supplied a wealthier market with a variety of images. The medieval period is frequently caricatured as a "time of ignorance and superstition" that placed "the word of religious authorities over personal experience and rational activity. Renaissance scholars saw the Middle Ages as a period of decline from the high culture and civilisation of the Classical world. Enlightenment scholars saw reason as superior to faith, and thus viewed the Middle Ages as a time of ignorance and superstition.

Others argue that reason was generally held in high regard during the Middle Ages. Science historian Edward Grant writes, "If revolutionary rational thoughts were expressed [in the 18th century], they were only made possible because of the long medieval tradition that established the use of reason as one of the most important of human activities". The caricature of the period is also reflected in some more specific notions. One misconception, first propagated in the 19th century [] and still very common, is that all people in the Middle Ages believed that the Earth was flat. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Period of European history from the 5th to the late 15th-century. This article is about medieval Europe. For a global history of the period between the 5th and 15th centuries, see Post-classical history.

For other uses, see Middle Ages disambiguation. For the dinner theatre, see Medieval Times. Main article: Later Roman Empire. Main article: Early Middle Ages. See also: Early medieval European dress and medieval cuisine. Main articles: Spread of Islam and Early Muslim conquests. Expansion under Muhammad, — Expansion during the Rashidun Caliphate, — Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, — Main article: Medieval economic history. Main article: Christianity in the Middle Ages. Main articles: Francia and Carolingian Empire. Main article: Carolingian Renaissance. Territorial divisions of the Carolingian Empire in , , and See also: Byzantine—Arab wars — and Byzantine—Bulgarian wars. Main articles: Medieval art and Medieval architecture. Main article: High Middle Ages.

Further information: Agriculture in the Middle Ages. Main articles: Crusades , Reconquista , and Northern Crusades. Main articles: Renaissance of the 12th century , Medieval philosophy , Medieval literature , Medieval poetry , and Medieval medicine of Western Europe. Further information: List of medieval European scientists. Further information: Medieval architecture , Medieval art , and Medieval music. Main articles: Gregorian Reform and Church and state in medieval Europe. Main article: Late Middle Ages.

Main article: Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. See also: Europeans in Medieval China. The revolt was triggered when one of the Roman military commanders attempted to take the Gothic leaders hostage but failed to secure all of them. It was adapted in the 19th century from a word used by the 2nd-century historian Tacitus to describe the close companions of a lord or king. If their sworn lord died, they were expected to fight to the death also. Charles was deposed in and died in January They descended from serfs who had served as warriors or government officials, which increased status allowed their descendants to hold fiefs as well as become knights while still being technically serfs.

Most German cities co-operated in the Hanseatic League, in contrast with the Italian city-states who engaged in internecine strife. In sieges the slowness is not as big a disadvantage, as the crossbowman can hide behind fortifications while reloading. That refinement was not invented until the 15th century. Random House Dictionary p. Gardner's Art Through the Ages p. Adams, Laurie Schneider A History of Western Art Third ed. ISBN Albrow, Martin Backman, Clifford R. The Worlds of Medieval Europe. Barber, Malcolm The Two Cities: Medieval Europe — London: Routledge.

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Geary, Patrick J. Gies, Joseph; Gies, Frances Life in a Medieval City. New York: Thomas Y. Grant, Edward God and Reason in the Middle Ages. Grierson, Philip Griffiths, Antony Prints and Printmaking. London: British Museum Press. Hallam, Elizabeth M. Capetian France — Second ed. Hamilton, Bernard Religion in the Medieval West Second ed. London: Arnold. Heather, Peter Helle, Knut; Kouri, E. Cambridge History of Scandinavia Part 1. New York: Cambridge University Press. Henderson, George Early Medieval Revised ed. New York: Penguin. OCLC Holmes, George , ed. The Oxford History of Medieval Europe. Ilardi, Vincent Renaissance Vision from Spectacles to Telescopes.

Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. James, Edward Europe's Barbarians: AD — The Medieval World. Harlow, UK: Pearson Longman. Jordan, William C. Europe in the High Middle Ages. Penguin History of Europe. New York: Viking. Kamen, Henry Spain — Third ed. Kaufmann, J. Keen, Maurice []. The Pelican History of Medieval Europe. London: Penguin Books. Kitzinger, Ernst London: British Museum. Knox, E. Europe in the Late Middle Ages. Boise State University.

Archived from the original on 3 February Retrieved 25 December Lasko, Peter Ars Sacra, — Penguin History of Art now Yale. Lawrence, C. H Harlow, UK: Longman. Lightbown, Ronald W. Lindberg, David C. Church History. JSTOR In Lindberg, David C. Lock, Peter Routledge Companion to the Crusades. New York: Routledge. Loyn, H. Martin, Janet Medieval Russia — Glasgow: Oxford University Press. LCCN Retrieved 7 April Miglio, Massimo In Mazzocco, Angelo ed.

Interpretations of Renaissance Humanism. Brill's Studies in Intellectual History. Leiden: Brill. Mommsen, Theodore E. April Morris, Rosemary Murray, Alexander Essays in Medieval Studies. Nees, Lawrence Early Medieval Art. Oxford History of Art. Nicolle, David London: Brockhampton Press. Numbers, Ronald 11 May Lecture archive. The Faraday Institute for Science and Religion. Retrieved 25 January Only the wealthy could dress in fashionable clothes. Discover interesting facts and information about the dress, fashion and clothes worn during the period.

How the Lords and Ladies dressed and how their style of Dress compared to the materials worn by the King. The sparse and frugal clothes worn by the monks and the nuns during the era and the clothes worn by the common men and women in England - the serfs and the peasants. Middle Ages Clothing Each section of this Middle Ages website addresses all topics and provides interesting facts and information about these great monuments to bygone times. The Sitemap provides full details of all of the information and facts provided about the fascinating subject of clothing in the Middle Ages! Middle Ages Clothing Middle Ages Clothing in Europe Amongst European nations, during the Middle Ages, there was always one common standard of fashion and clothing , which varied from time to time according to the particular custom of each country, and according to the peculiarities of each race.

Clothing of a Nobleman. In Germany and Switzerland, clothing and garments had generally a heavy and massive appearance; in Holland, still more so. Sumptuary Laws of the Middle Ages. History of Fashion in the Middle Ages. Medieval Fashion. Medieval Knight Clothing. Middle Ages Ladies Dresses. Medieval Lord Clothing. Medieval Peasant Clothing. Medieval Kings Clothing. Medieval Women's Clothing. Monks Clothes in the Middle Ages. Nuns Clothes in the Middle Ages. Simple Dresses from the Middle Ages. Middle Ages Hairstyles. Middle Ages Sitemap. Middle Ages Knights.

Middle Ages Castles. Life in the Middle Ages. Knights Templar. Middle Ages People. Middle Ages Index. Kings in Middle Ages. Middle Ages Timeline. The Crusades.

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