✍️✍️✍️ Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics

Sunday, June 13, 2021 2:04:28 AM

Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics



See how I backed that up, Queer Theory In Beowulf: The Problem Of Grendels God It's a fact. Yet, as Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics so Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics the case, it was the phrase highlighted as a boxed blurb Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics get reader attention. But it was also a very Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics Shirley Chisholms Speech when you consider that Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics whole operation Verbal And Nonverbal Communication In Therapeutic Nurse-Patient Relationships supposed to work without political Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics and Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics national campaigns. Editor Icons Not Working? Started by raetsel Sep 19, Replies: Although Rome at the time was Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics in the same position, Bradley notes Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics Plutarch, who is writing many centuries later, sees the summary of blood brothers Electoral Bribery In Roman Politics of decline in store for Rome.

Roman Politics: Cursus Honorum

He is, then, a model statesman, both for the readers of Pyrrhus-Marius and, as we will see, for his successors in the early first century B. Marius was not an optimate, who respected the rules and traditions of the Roman state, but a Populares who appealed to the will of the mob and disdained the traditions of the Senate. It is for this reason that Marius is most often compared with the likes of Pyrrhus and with the Demos of Tarentum. Although Rome at the time was not in the same position, Bradley notes that Plutarch, who is writing many centuries later, sees the same pattern of decline in store for Rome.

There is no doubt that the Roman Republic was a very successful system, but it had a number of flaws which would ultimately spell its doom. In this account Marius usurps unprecedented power from the rest of the Republican governing structure and threatens this framework with destruction. The inability of the Senate to adapt to the growing threat posed by power hungry demagogues allowed men like Marius to rise to prominence and push the bounds of power within the Roman state. While Livy, writing in the time of Augustus, has seen Rome ruled by great men like Caesar and Augustus and sees them as being what saved the empire, Plutarch, writing later after the time of the mediocre Julio-Claudians, focuses on the collapse of the framework of the Republic and the breakdown of the Republican ethos that, until then, had allowed the great men to keep the Republic intact.

Despite his demagoguery and his power grabbing, Marius would not have been able to achieve all his aims without the aid of his own reforms of the Roman Army. Prior to Marius other leaders had turned into demagogues, most notably the Gracchi brothers of the mid-2nd Century B. But the Gracchi, for all their demagoguery, did not bring about the decline of the Roman state. Although they had many followers and strong political alliances, when the senate turned on them they were powerless to protect themselves. Indeed, in the case of Gaius the Senate was even able to grant special powers to the consuls to lead the army against Gaius and his followers who had fled to Aventine Hill.

However, the story was very different in the case of Marius. The Marian Reforms would have a very profound effect on the traditional structure and role of the Roman Army. Prior to the reforms the Roman Army had been made up of men who owned land and who were generally from the middle class. This was done because it was believed that only property holders would have a stake in the betterment of the state and would have something to go back to after the war.

A career in the army could be very profitable to a member of the poor. The pay was very good and best of all, there were promises of land for soldiers who survived their term of service. However, this would create a dangerous new dynamic in the Roman armed forces. With their former or current legionaries willing to support them, many demagogues after the Marian Reforms could be more secure in the knowledge that they could call on their soldiers to protect them and their interests.

This did not happen at first, as A. That happens from 88 B. He does no such thing. As White demonstrates the soldiers were at first used for voting purposes and as the mob to which Marius could appeal to, but they would not remain this way. Indeed, Sulla, the other major figure that will be discussed, was the one to make this not so unpredictable leap to using the loyalty of his troops to his own advantage when he marched on Rome. But more broadly, the effects of the Marian Reforms would leave their imprint on this era of Roman history as a succession of great commanders like Caesar, Pompey, Augustus, Lepidus and Mark Antony all led their own personal armies in the Roman Civil Wars.

The reforms gave each of these leaders a degree of political protection and individual political influence that was unprecedented prior to the Marian Reforms. Next, the focus will turn to the role of Lucius Cornelius Sulla in the collapse of the Republic. Although Marius is certainly very important to our understanding of the collapse of the Republic he is not the primary culprit. Marius may have been a demagogue and the one who laid the framework under which other would be tyrants like Caesar and others would appear but he himself did not leave a permanent mark on the structure of the Republic.

Sulla, by contrast, would use the ideas and systems begun by Marius and take them to their final conclusion. At this time Sulla had been granted command of the Roman Army destined for the war with Mithridates VI of Pontus after being elected consul. Metellus in I07 had obediently gone home when deprived of Africa, and they expected Sulla to do likewise in This was because Sulla, rather than accept his fate, left Rome to quickly rejoin his army camped in Campania and there he appealed to his troops to join with him. He claimed that the Senate had been usurped and that it was necessary to march back to Rome to restore order. However, as B. This is indicative of the effect of the Marian Reforms mentioned previously. However, what truly sets Sulla apart from Marius is the attack on Rome itself.

This was an important because not only because it was the first time soldiers had sided with their commander in an attack on the Senate and Rome but it also set a very dangerous precedent. If a commander did not want to give up their power and their imperium, then the solution was to march on Rome and force the Senate to accept their continued imperium. Just as Sulla had done, Julius Caesar some 40 years later would march his army across the Rubicon and towards Rome when the Senate planned to end his imperium following his conquest of Gaul.

It also demonstrated how powerless the Senate was to effectively do anything to prevent this as Sulla marched on Rome not just once but 2 times in 88 and 83 B. Although Plutarch is likely inflating this sensational story to some degree, since Sulla had sacked Athens during his campaign in the Balkans, it is important to note that there was no precedent for this action in the entire history of the Republic.

Nor is this entirely similar to the deaths of so many senators in battle, as happened at the battle of Cannae in the 2nd Punic War. In this way, though dozens of Senators were slain by the Carthaginians, it did not pose a severe structural threat to the Roman state since mechanisms were in place to handle a situation like this one. Additionally, those senators killed at Cannae had died at the hands of a foreign enemy and not at the hands of an elected official of the Roman state.

To find an example of political murders on this kind of scale by a leader of the Roman state, it is necessary to go back to before the Republic came into existence. This brings us to the account by Livy of the last king of Rome and a hated tyrant, Tarquinius Superbus. In this way Superbus murdered off those he thought would oppose his rule in much the same way that Sulla would use proscriptions to eliminate those who were his enemies and those whom he felt had been responsible for disturbing the peace.

It is also important to note, as in the previous paragraph, another important factor which is similar to the case of Sulla. As with Sulla, Tarquinius saw the need for the army in order to support his regime and in order to enforce his murder of his opponents. However, unlike Sulla, as Livy seems to indicate here, Tarquinius could also see that by his use of violence to remake the state he risked the precedent that his form of government would be destroyed by violence as it was years later when Brutus lead the struggle to overthrow Tarquinius. Even if Sulla did not realize the full magnitude of his actions as he tried to reform the Senate, as Harriet Flower points out, he did try to use his action to make changes to the senate.

Without a more permanent and stable system, the Republic would vacillate between the triumvirates of the likes of Caesar, Pompey and Crassus and the later Antony, Octavius and Lepidus as well as with dictatorships like that of Caesar and later of Octavius. The last important point regarding Sulla is his role as dictator from B. Although it is not as decisive in the collapse of the Roman Republic as the previous point, it is most certainly significant as a precedent and to understanding the decades that followed.

Following his second march on Rome in 83 B. Sulla again recaptured the city and made himself dictator whereupon he proceeded to revise the Roman governing system as well as inaugurate his proscriptions. This was a level of power that was unprecedented for the Republic and created chaos within Rome as Sulla proceeded to do whatever struck his fancy. As Plutarch continues to describe Sulla would confiscate estates and manage their sale from the rostra while giving territories and the revenues of whole cities to beautiful women, transvestites and actors. One thing that still links Sulla to the traditions of the Republic, though, is that he did eventually relinquish his power. This perhaps more than anything shows how little Sulla realized that he had altered the Republic.

Although Sulla gave up his power willingly, the damage had already been done. As Ronald T. In this way, Sulla set the tone for the decades to follow and created the means for others to take bold action and usurp power in the Republic. Sulla and Marius each had their own level of culpability for the chaos that would eventually bring about the fall of the Republic. Although Marius, as a demagogic leader whose lust for power was insatiable, stretched the rules and functions of the Republic to their breaking point and created the conditions under which future dictators could rise to challenge the state it is Sulla who bears the ultimate blame.

Ironically, the man who claimed to be fighting in the name of the restoration of the Republic, who undid many laws and who attempted to bring about a return of more conservative values broke the Republic in his clumsy attempt to save it. In the end Sulla destroyed the foundations upon which the Republic had been based by his march on Rome, by his proscriptions and by his dictatorship. Both these men would influence the next generation very heavily and this next generation would finish the process that Sulla and Marius had set in motion. Works Cited Buszard, Bradley. According to legal positivism, law is synonymous with positive norms, that is, norms made by the legislator or considered as common law or case law.

Legal positivism does not base law on divine commandments, reason, or human rights. As an historical matter, positivism arose in opposition to classical natural law theory, according to which there are necessary moral constraints on the content of law. One January 6, there was short time in which we wondered a deeper question: who is the strongest? You are correct. The enemy is the CCP. Their employees pay with their jobs and a lower standard of living. There is nothing wrong with free trade but globalism provides aid and comfort to our enemies. If he were prosecuted on criminal charges, then several of his political opponents should be charged as well since they actually promoted violence against Trump and his allies.

Panem et circenses. Bread and circuses. Juvenal, 1st-2nd cent. The god of Money is the most powerful of all the gods. The professor apparently fails to see, or deliberately chooses not to acknowledge, the profit making motive and the nanoseconds of celebrity, if not fame, engendered by spurious and specious pronouncements. Fear not! As for you and me, amusement is the only game. All the while, who is it earns the shame? As we stare at the image on the screen, as we see our clean hands from printed paper, perhaps giving our attention to these legal lizards, talking heads and person s on the Hill is where to lay the blame.

The impeachment managers DID request that he appear and testify. He refused. Mueller requested that he appear and testify. He refused, but had Giuliani provide answers to interrogatories that were incomplete and evasive—and he refused to amend or supplement. Trump will never cooperate, and not only that, in the Mueller investigation, he refused to produce documents and procured the lack of cooperation of key witnesses. Impeachment is NOT a criminal trial. And, the evidence is overwhelming. How and why were the disciples present on January 6th? What was motivating them other than their belief in a pathological liar who continues to maintain there was fraud and that he won in a landslide despite anything resembling proof, and who told them to fight for their country?

Did they think they were going to just march around with signs? Why were some carrying zip ties and stun guns? How can any patriotic American ever consider that a person who lies this much and who manipulates the emotions of vulnerable people, who failed spectacularly at being President, who caused unnecessary deaths and collapse of our economy, and who cheated his way into office with the help of a hostile foreign government, that such a person should ever hold office again? You ironically speak of whipping up the public into a frenzy with legally-insufficient claims. They are Republicans first and Americans second and fear losing what power they still have, so a riot at the home of American democracy, whipped up by a pathological liar and narcissist, is no problem for them.

Why do you keep providing fodder for the disciples by using your credentials to feed into the Fox News narrative that Trump did nothing wrong? Turley has and will reinforce the alternative reality of Trump supporters. Turley has taken the Trump brand and ran with it, he knows his marks as well as Trump. So far, Turley has a pretty good prediction rate on impeachment and made-for-tv charges. You game? Get a life. Go somewhere else and agree with someone if you can find anyone to agree with. Uh Dude, I predicted the Republicans will NOT vote against Trump for the simple reason that they have been consistently losing ground nationally and want the support of the gullible disciples.

Read what I wrote. But, he has admitted to being on the GOP payroll, so what else do you expect? Turley is talking about criminal charges on a variety of accusations — and he clearly says that Trump does have criminal charges to deal with having to do with his pre-presidential business career. But they have not been. And that is because, as Turley accurately says, sensationalist speculation and lazy guarantees by cable news talking heads is entirely separate from the real world of bringing credible charges in a court of law and litigating them. I have yet to see any media anywhere predict that the Senate will convict Trump.

I have yet to see any cable news legal expert predict that Trump will ever be convicted of anything in any forum, but I have seen discussions about his conduct and how he COULD BE charged. The call was recorded, so the evidence is there, but will charges be brought? Trump can still be indicted and charged with crimes pertaining to his January 6th and pre January 6th conduct—the Trump Insurrection was only a month ago. Unlike Trump, Biden does not try to tell the DOJ its business, whom it should investigate and prosecute, or otherwise interfere with its mission or values. See how I backed that up, Natacha? How does someone prove a negative, and by what authority can anyone require states to prove the accuracy of votes after the totals have been certified?

Vote counts can be challenged, which they were, and found to be accurate. Trump demanded scrutiny for vote counting, which was done. All voting, tallying and custody of ballots was bipartisan in each and every state. They prefer to believe a pathological liar. I again repeat the request to use logic: Trump lost the popular vote in , he had historically-low polling numbers, he botched the pandemic, trashed the economy, and was predicted by every poll to lose.

How reasonable is his claim that somehow the American people not only favored him over Biden, but in a landslide? A speech which by his very words were provoking, encouraging anger, unpatriotic, to a hostile crowd carrying Trump flags MEGA hats, military gear, one supporter painted bare-chest and face, wearing furs with horns coming out of his head. His direct involvement in a crime violating his oath to defend the Constitution of the United States. He committed himself fully with all the elements of a cause of action by his use of words implicating himself.

Following, in part, is what the president of the United States had said to incite uncontrollable action and inflame further his followers. Merriam Webster. And we fight. We fight like hell. I love Pennsylvania Avenue. Article 2 Sec. More than 24 hours later after the attack on the capitol building, President Trump condemned the violence. He made his speech some distance from Congress. You provided a lot of quotes that mean what you want them to tell, but that is your mind creating words and ideas that did not exist.

Protest is a part of America. He called for the opposite. Here is the column: Donald Trump may be the most convicted man never charged in America. Share this: Twitter Reddit Facebook Email. Like this: Like Loading

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