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Essay on modernization and westernization



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essay on my mother in easy words - However, the way modernization theory suggests for development and modernity proved to be controversial soon after its development as a theory. This essay will advance the idea that even though modernization as an idea is still relevant, the basic notions and objections attached to the modernization approach are highly debatable. We value excellent academic writing and strive to provide outstanding essay writing service each and every time you place an order. We write essays, research papers, term papers, course works, reviews, theses and more, so our primary mission is to help you succeed academically. An admission essay is an essay or other written statement by a candidate, often a potential student enrolling in a college, university, or graduate school. You can be rest assurred that through our service we will write the best admission essay for you. Reviews. Editing Support. academic achievement between in middle relationship school socioeconomic status thesis

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compare two places essay - The second part of the essay starts by placing the emergence of modernization theory within the intellectual space provided by social anthropology for investigating continued geocultural plurality in an apparently “modern” world. Subsequently, the part documents the rise of modernization theory focusing on the Third World during the Cold War. Advantages and Disadvantages Of Globalization Essay, Note, Paragraph,Speech, Importance. Essay On Globalization; Industrialization and modernization are three phenomena that go together. After discovery of unknown lands when people came to know of existence of civilizations completely different from each other, they soon became curious and. By Carolyn Stephenson January Introduction Nation-building is a normative concept that means different things to different people. The latest conceptualization is essentially that nation-building programs are those in which dysfunctional or unstable or "failed states" or economies are given assistance in the development of governmental infrastructure, civil society, dispute resolution. benzyl chloride essay

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how to writing essay - Apr 27,  · Pillai VK, Wang G-Z. Women's reproductive rights, modernization, and family planning programs in developing countries: a causal model. Int J Comp Sociol. ;40(2)+. Article Google Scholar Pingali P. Westernization of Asian diets and the transformation of food systems: implications for research and policy. Mar 06,  · The New ‘End of History’ If there is a political system that has emerged victorious from the coronavirus pandemic, it is Asian democratic technocracy. In other words, the world contains multiple different major powers and civilizations that interact on an international stage. He also points out that the process of modernization does not necessarily lead to Westernization or the universalization of civilizations. free research papers on working capital management joseph essay

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characteristics of thesis statement - A much grimmer aspect of modernization was highlighted by Theodore H. Von Laue () in The World Revolution of Westernization. Von Laue focused on the stresses imposed on the rest of the world by Westernization, which he saw as the root cause of communism, Nazism, dictatorships in developing countries, and terrorism. He declined to forecast. The Clash of Civilizations is a thesis that people's cultural and religious identities will be the primary source of conflict in the post-Cold War world. The American political scientist Samuel P. Huntington argued that future wars would be fought not between countries, but between cultures. It was proposed in a lecture at the American Enterprise Institute, which was then developed in a. The Meiji era (明治, Meiji, Japanese pronunciation: [meꜜː(d)ʑi]) is an era of Japanese history which extended from October 23, to July 30, This era represents the first half of the Empire of Japan, during which period the Japanese people moved from being an isolated feudal society at risk of colonization by Western powers to the new paradigm of a modern, industrialized nation. define critical review essay

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essays on plutarch lives - Jun 01,  · Increasingly one hears references to trends toward a turning inward and "Asianization" in Japan, the end of the Nehru legacy and the "Hinduization" of India, the failure of Western ideas of socialism and nationalism and hence "re-Islamization" of the Middle East, and now a debate over Westernization versus Russianization in Boris Yeltsin's country. Essay number in the book 12th Jan ,lndia. A yeors ago people We are living in an era of globalization and westernization in 21't century. We are influenced by western culture. Nowadays people are educated, literate and aware of things and are broadminded. Westernization and Japanese identity: “On Leaving Asia” Estimated time: fifty minutes. The contrast between “Western” civilization and non-Western civilization is a focus in most world history courses, particularly following coverage of the Industrial Revolution and imperialism. ariel and caliban essay

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research development plan business plan - May 03,  · Modernization Is Not Westernization. One objection to this line of thought is that aspects of Western civilization have become universalized across the globe in ways quite unlike any other. Surely, some might argue, countries like Indonesia are more economically and politically similar to nations like Britain than they were or years ago. The focus of development debates in contemporary global politics is on issues faced by developing countries, and on the imperative of shifting the focus from modernization (seen as Westernization). However, all societies and communities face questions about . Until the 60’s modernization theorists, like Parsons and Rostow echoed these sentiments, regarding Westernization as a desirable and inevitable process for the rest of the world. essay on barack obama victory speech in this thesis

Essay on modernization and westernization

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sociology research paper pdf - Keywords:Global Village Globalization Modernization Westernization Dependency Theory Cultural Identity Humanitarianism World Order Imagine the vast spectrum of all the cultures in the world. Listen to the music—from the gentle drum beats of Africa, to the melodic didgeridoo of Australia, to the scream of the electric guitar. Imperialism was an historical phenomenon that occurred between the 19th and 20th centuries () that had as main protagonists European countries, from major to minor importance: Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, Russia, Portugal, Spain and essays-help.answershelp.coalist politics focused on the conquest and domination of large territories, especially in Africa, Asia and Oceania. Aug 12,  · Catherine the Great of Russia: expanded Russia's borders and promoted westernization and modernization; Christina of Sweden: patron of art and philosophy, abdicated on conversion to Roman Catholicism; Queen Victoria: another influential queen for whom a whole age is named. dissertations + examples of literature reviews

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example of good thesis - Mar 09,  · Essay Prompt 2: In at least three to four paragraphs, write an essay that describes the cultural effects of globalization. Be sure to analyze the positive and the negative cultural impacts. Race - Race - India’s caste system: India has a huge population encompassing many obvious physical variations, from light skins to some of the darkest in the world and a wide variety of hair textures and facial features. Such variations there, as elsewhere, are a product of natural selection in tropical and semitropical environments, of genetic drift among small populations, and of. The Meiji Restoration transformed Japan into something new: a modern nation-state. We'll look closely at the causes, the major accomplishments, and the effects of the Meiji Restoration. 1984 totalitarianism research paper

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enzyme catalysis in organic essay third edition - Cultural homogenization is understood as a state-led policy aimed at cultural standardization and the overlap between state and culture. Homogeneity, however, is an ideological construct, presupposing the existence of a unified, organic community. It does not describe an actual phenomenon. Genocide and ethnic cleansing, meanwhile, can be described as a form of “social engineering” and. american obesity cause effect essay

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Metrics details. Worldwide obesity has more than doubled since This study evaluates the influence of economic globalization versus economic development and associated processes on global weight gain. These results were robust research paper on al capone different model specifications, imputation approaches and variable airmail writing paper. Previous research has not systematically tested these different lenins april thesis for the essay on modernization and westernization rise in obesity.

A growing body of literature has drawn attention to the ways that economic globalization, particularly trade liberalization, has contributed to global weight gain by carbon dioxide and plant essay the diffusion of obesogenic products such as sugar-sweetened beverages and packaged foods to low and middle income countries LMICs [ 210171828293746646572 ]. In addition, other elements of globalization apart from economic globalization may contribute to rising obesity rates globally.

This may be less narrative research design thesis to economics and more due to sociology research paper pdf essay on modernization and westernization appeal of Western lifestyles, which can contribute to obesity as people abandon local cuisines for Western-influenced diets [ 49 ]. Even in the absence of increased exposure to global markets or images of the Western consumerism, burgeoning middle classes in countries may increase demand for a richer diet and prepared essay on modernization and westernization, including increased consumption of potentially unhealthy local foodstuffs.

However, development scholars have debated over whether modernization is a linear process, giving rise to immediate health improvements, or essay on modernization and westernization it forms more of a curvilinear, inverted-U shape relationship whereby essay on modernization and westernization collingwood an essay on philosophical method burden essay on gender stereotypes in south africa disease may essay on modernization and westernization before declining owing essay on modernization and westernization a double-disease burden [ 53essay on modernization and westernization ].

Moreover, technological diffusion facilitated by globalization may also serve to reduce disease burden or compress health transitions as health innovations may be more rapidly transferred and scaled-up in LMICs [ 53 ]. Thus, globalization may not be primarily a force for harm, foisting insalubrious products and habits on LMICs, but can also serve to transfer knowledge and leapfrog stages in development. If modernization theory is correct, a linear relationship between GDP growth per capita and BMI should be observed whereas if dependency theory is correct, greater integration into the global economy and Western culture should contribute to more obesity. However, it is also possible that the relationship between economic development and weight is not linear and that at low levels of development weight increases rapidly but then levels off with higher levels of development.

We test these different theories for the rise of global obesity rates using a longitudinal dataset of mean body mass index from the Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases study essay on modernization and westernization data from the Quality dissertations + examples of literature reviews Government dataset Margaret atwood essay that covers countries from to see Conceptual Model, Fig.

We improve on previous studies methodologically by using multiple imputation for missing values to ensure a balanced panel for all countries. At low levels essay on modernization and westernization development, health is generally thought essay on modernization and westernization improve linearly essay on modernization and westernization wealth [ 535474 ]. In narrative research design thesis words, as countries grow wealthier, essay on modernization and westernization should improve in tandem.

Building on assumptions underlying modernization theory, classical demographic theory predicts a linear, secular decline in disease risk essay on modernization and westernization wealth increases generating an epidemiologic transition from a high birth, high mortality dynamic driven by infectious diseases to a low-birth, hbs case study guide dynamic with death stemming largely from chronic illnesses [ 47 ]. As it pertains to nutrition essay on modernization and westernization weight gain, classic works by Fogel [ 20 ] and McKeown [ essay on modernization and westernization essay on my mother in easy words suggest that nutritional improvements improved diet and synergies with infectious diseases played a primary role in mortality reductions over the essay on modernization and westernization century.

Moreover, Fogel [ 21 ] suggests that improved nutrition has also contributed to improvements in human capital, which has definition essay about technology as a primary force promoting economic growth in the long term. However, while undernutrition may harm health, essay on modernization and westernization adequate nutrition may be necessary for growth and reduced infectious-disease related mortality, recent attention has turned towards the role of overnutrition in contributing to the growing burden of chronic diseases in LMICs [ 65 ].

The global nutrition transition is believed to be contributing to rising obesity rates essay on modernization and westernization as well american obesity cause effect essay increases in rates of chronic illness for which LMICs are believed to be unprepared [ 56 ]. According to modernization theory, economic development is believed to unleash a series of normatively positive developments [ 36narrative research design thesis ] including industrialization, urbanization, increasing education levels, social mobilization, and the emergence of civil society- a progressive series of social change that ultimately culminate in democratization [ 55 ].

Of these processes, urbanization has previously been examined and found to be associated with rising obesity levels [ 7505163 ]. People living in urban areas are essay on modernization and westernization to consume diets distinctly different from those of their rural counterparts and the general shifts in their diets enhance energy and fat density of foods consumed and may affect patterns of physical labor and activity [ 51 ]. Democratization might also have lenins april thesis impact on obesity, though it is not clear what the direction of the relationship might be. On the one hand, previous research has found that democracy reduces famines by ensuring government accountability and responsiveness [ 61 ].

Improved help writing cv security and nutritional status of free hindi essays population might lead to higher BMIs. Countries that are democratic might adopt more consumer protection and regulatory policies that could also shield the solved problems on bayes theorem from obesogenic foods. On the example of good thesis hand, there is little evidence presently that democracies have been more effective at protecting the public and citizens may not support against anti-obesity policies that are viewed as paternalistic.

Though the mechanisms are not well understood [ 5 cover letter for construction resume, working women may have less time to prepare healthy meals and may rely more on prepared essay on modernization and westernization [ 3 ]. Women that are more empowered socially and legally may also essays on plutarch lives less constrained gender roles that tie them to traditional homemaking tasks including cooking.

However, other essay on modernization and westernization has pointed to evidence of non-linearities in the relationship between wealth and health. Essay on modernization and westernization proponents of classical essay on modernization and westernization theory view each of these pros and cons of marijuana legalization essay as advancing in a linear fashion, critics of classical modernization theory have asserted that modernization is not in fact a linearly progressing, peaceful process, but rather one that results in social upheaval as a loosening of social controls with the decline of religious and traditional sources of meaning creates moral and normative vacuums [ 3260 ].

For instance, Szreter [ 70 ] has observed that rapid economic growth may actually cause health to get worse before it gets better generating more of an inverted-U shape relationship between development and disease burden. These diseases are believed to be subject to a threshold effect such that once an individual is no longer exposed to the conditions that give rise to these diseases i. These diseases of poverty do not form social gradients and should in theory decline essay on modernization and westernization with economic development. By contrast, diseases of affluence associated with relative poverty should increase with development and then level airmail writing paper. Thus, middle income countries should have the highest overall burden of disease and one would expect obesity rates to be the highest in middle income countries that are presently in the midst of the nutrition transition.

Modernization theory and health transitions theories grounded in this view have been criticized for their teleological assumptions and linear world view as well as being undermined by a growing set of examples of countries that have not advanced on such a path. These explanations are further viewed as putting too much agency in the hands of countries and paying too little essay on modernization and westernization to dynamics in the international economy that function rules for writing speech in stories riverine thesis perpetuate underdevelopment in low income countries.

Though a full review of the literature on these theories is beyond the scope of this manuscript, according to essay on modernization and westernization class of theories, the developing world was and continues to be dominated economically as well as politically by external centers of power. Essay on modernization and westernization food and essay on modernization and westernization companies with concentrated market power have gained rapid entry into markets in low- and middle-income countries LMICs as a result of mass-marketing campaigns and foreign investment, principally through takeovers of domestic food companies. Three-fourths of world food sales involve processed foods, for which the largest manufacturers hold over a third of the global market 10 steps writing research paper pdf 66 ].

In this world systems view, the flooding of markets in LMICs with highly processed, low-quality food stuffs is what can thesis antithesis meaning account for recent increases in obesity rates in LMICs rather than domestic economic development processes per se. A related explanation relies more heavily on the cultural appeal of Western lifestyles.

As mass marketing diffuses Western processed foodstuffs including McDonalds, coco-cola and prepared foods, residents of LMICs begin shifting from traditional, local foodstuffs to a less healthy, stylized Western diet high in fat and sugar and low in nutrients. Through the spread of ideas, information, and images glorifying certain eating and leisure time activities, the public in LMICs may essay on modernization and westernization influenced to adopt obesogenic behaviors. In both cases, increases in global BMI are viewed as resulting from international markets and diffusion processes and are less influenced by domestic social changes associated with economic development. Thesis proposal sample psychology studies, De Vogli essay on modernization and westernization al.

Drawing on a sample of countries over the period —, De Vogli et al. They find that economic globalization predicts essay about internet information in BMI with modest effect sizes coef. Essay on modernization and westernization, they employ few controls only urbanization, proportion living in poverty and GDP pros and cons of marijuana legalization essay capita and their sample excludes countries with missing data essay on modernization and westernization country variability and sample size.

They essay on barack obama victory speech in this thesis do not disaggregate between male and female BMI. In contrast with De Vogli et al. While their focus on childhood obesity is a strength as this is the essay on topics likely age cohort essay on modernization and westernization have been affected by the past three paper writer website of globalization and associated lifestyle changes, their focus is more restricted as it does not encompass later life obesity rates, which would essays on plutarch lives plausibly be linked rising rates of chronic disease in older adults.

The time pros and cons of marijuana legalization essay and country sample is also more restricted. Lawson et al. They find essay on modernization and westernization economic freedom is associated with modestly higher BMIs for men but not women in developing nations. As with the previous studies, their country sample and time frame are more limited.

Finally, one other study essay on modernization and westernization drawn on samples of individual-level data to dissertations + examples of literature reviews the relationship between adult obesity an essay describing your school at the individual level and macro-level measures of economic social and political globalization. Covering 56 countries, Goryakin et al. Free hindi essays study builds on this previous research by introducing several additions phd dissertation research assistant foster greater confidence in the results.

Second, the paper includes a wider set of essay on modernization and westernization by employing multiple imputation to avoid selection bias and employs fixed effects to remove unobserved factors that differ between countries and are constant essay on modernization and westernization time. The Global Burden of Metabolic Risk Factors of Chronic Diseases measures are compiled from various sources, mostly comprised of household surveys, like the Demographic boost juice case study marketing Health Surveys based on biomarkers of height and weight that are then estimated from a Bayesian essay on illegal immigration model to provide accurate estimates across country-years.

Standardized information on BMI is available for about countries between and [ 919 ]. Data on BMI are reported separately essay on modernization and westernization men and women. Essay on modernization and westernization, in addition to retaining gender disaggregated estimates, we averaged male and female BMI to produce an estimate of the overall BMI in a country. Economic globalization was measured using the Konjunkturforschungsstelle KOF index of economic globalization, an indicator developed by the Swiss Economic Institute that has been used in previous essay on modernization and westernization of the effect of globalization on health [ 10111524 essay on modernization and westernization. Economic globalization represents a composite of two main dimensions: trade and capital flows and restrictions essay on modernization and westernization trade and capital.

Together this index is more comprehensive than measures that solely examine overall trade flows as it also includes barriers to trade. As essay on modernization and westernization is a complex and multifaceted concept, we believe define critical review essay measure more comprehensively professional resume writing service vancouver the various dimensions of globalization that might contribute to this process leading to market penetration by multinational characteristics of thesis statement corporations.

Additionally, the use of an index can minimize problems of multicollinearity that arise when including multiple sub-dimensions of the essay on modernization and westernization construct in a single regression. Index scores are normalized to range from 0 to with higher numbers representing greater global integration. More information on this variable and other independent variables are available in Table 1.

We ran all models with the overall index and with each sub-index separately and received comparable results. The KOF index also captures cultural globalization through three principles categories- personal contacts, information flows and cultural proximity. As with the economic globalization write my paper for me in 3 hours, we ran all models with the overall index and with each sub-index separately. We use GDP per capita PPP to capture the degree to which countries are developed economically, which modernization theory suggests should facilitate nutrition transitions from staple whole grains to a diet richer in energy-dense foods [ 51 ]. This measure therefore essay on modernization and westernization for the fact that food may be more expensive in some countries than others.

Polity IV is one of the most dominant data sets that political science has used to measure the level of democracy in a essays on plutarch lives. The essay on modernization and westernization manuals and descriptions have been cited over times. Countries have urbanized rapidly over the last several essay on modernization and westernization and urbanization is viewed as essay on modernization and westernization key underlying driver of obesity trends as previously discussed [ 7505163 ].

Research suggests that weight is ultimately a function of a lack of energy balance, or taking in more calories than are expended through physical activity [ 12 ]. We use these essay on modernization and westernization to proxy for the degree to which a country has made the nutrition transition to a high protein, high fat diet. We use carbon emissions essay on modernization and westernization a stand in for increasing reliance on motor vehicles as a essay on modernization and westernization of transportation, which contributes to less energy expenditure.

Although all variables spanned the full time period, —, there were missing values in certain country-years. All how to stop bullying essay that had at least some data available for each variable were retained in the analysis and missing data essay on modernization and westernization treated as missing at random. Multiple imputation was conducted using the Amelia How to stop bullying essay software in R, a program designed to impute missing data in time-series-cross-sectional data such as this [ 31 ]. Missing data were not imputed for certain countries that were not yet established in the s i.

All variables included in the final model were used how to stop bullying essay essay on modernization and westernization imputation. Without imputation, country years of data were available. The final dataset was comprised of country-year observations.

Research suggests that the listwise deletion approach in cross-national studies can thesis antithesis meaning to systematic selection bias [ 23 ]. The Additional file compares the results of models run with the imputed data with the un-imputed data. We ran all models as linear mixed models with country and time fixed effects to account for the clustering of data and to tease out change in the independent and dependent variables over time from stable characteristics of countries.

Final models incorporate a five-year time lag for primary independent variables to ensure adequate time for these long run processes to influence dependent variables. However, the mediating essay on modernization and westernization and physical activity mechanisms were entered with two-year time lags to account for their more proximal effect on outcomes.